A Periodic Table

Both "elements" in this period differ from the others by having no electron shell or positive nucleus.' The element number LLOO'' for "v" suggests tha...
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Torolf Ternstrom Sturevagen 34 Stocksund, Sweden

A Periodic Table

The advantages of the complete blocksystem according to Werner (1) and a horizontal Bohrline-system according to Spedding (8) suggest a modified arrangement of the Periodic Table. Elements of different states of aggregation are easily separated by dashdotted lines with corresponding headings at the top and elements belonging to the same group are connected by full lines. Elements having a certain relation to each other without belonging to the same group are connected by dotted lines. Further dotted lines may be reasonable. A new zero period with neutrino (v) and the neutron, neutronium (Nn), is introduced as a complementary suggestion. Both "elements" in this period differ from the others by having no electron shell or positive nucleus.' The element number LLOO'' for "v" suggests that the neutrino has neither nuclear charge nor mass. "0" for Nn implies no nuclear charge.

'Some justification for including the neutrino also may be found in the suggestion by de Rroglie ("Thdorie g4n6rale des particulea A spin," 2nd ed., Ganthier-Villars, Paris, 1954, p. 94) that neutrinos may be fundamental building blocks of photons.

This new arrangement of the Periodic System also suggests reasonable C-groups for the lanthanides and actinides. These elements generally have an oxidation state of +3, but can vary from +2 to +6. The elements in C3, like the elements in B3 are only tripositive and their compounds are colorless, thereby being different from the other C-group elements. This is the justification for the C3-group and the dotted line Y-Gd. A reservation may, however, be that according to Asprey and Cunningham (3) Cm(1V) has been obtained, although not in solution. For Eu, Yb the +2 as well as the +3 state is well known and according to Asprey and Cunningham (S), Am(I1) has been verified. According to Seaborg (4),No(I1) is expected, although the name is called into question (5). Thus C2 seems to be justified, the figure 2 referring to the lowest oxidation state. Since a lower state of oxidation than 2 does not exit among lanthanides or actinides, there is no C1-group. The designation C4 needs no comment. A subgrouping of C5 may be more correct, ie., a Pr (4)-group with maximum tetrapositive elements including Pr and Dy, and a Pa(5)-group including Pa and Cf. According to Nakatsuka and Chang (6), Pr(V) should exist, but ac-

The Periodic System of the Elements (Main A-



Journal o f Chemical Educofion

,Side-8- ,and


cording to h s ~ r e vand Cunningham (3) has not been z ~ e a b & g(7) 'and Asprey and verified. ~ 0 t ~h a t and Cunningham (3) expect, however, a Cf(V). For justify-

with B8 be For both groups a subgrouping is necessary, the maximum state of oxidation only existing for some of the elements within the groups. Further, both groups consist of three vertical columns, and the compounds of the elements in both groups are strongly colored. Further information relating various forms of the periodic table will be found in Mazurs (8). The subject is examined more fully in an article by the p~esent author in the Swedish chemical journal Suensk Kemisk Tidskrift,November, 1963. ing C6' a

Literature Cited 389 916(1905). ( 2 ) SPEDDING, F. H., Sci. Avn., 185, NO.5, 27 (1951). (3) ASPREY, L. B., AND CUNNINGHAM, B. B., PTOQT. Ino~g.Chem., 2.267 . 11960). , , (4) SEABORG, G. T., J. CHEM. EDUC.,36,43 (1959). G. T., AND FRITSCH, A. R., Sci. Am., 208, No. 4, (5) SEABORO, 68 (1963). Y., AND CHANG, T., Acta Chimiea Taiwanica, (6) NAKATSUKA, 1,48 (1948). (7) KATZ,J. J., AND SEABORG, G. T., "Tho Chemistry of the Actinide Elements," Wiley, New York, 1957, p. 399. (8) Mazuns, E. G., "Types of Graphioal Representations of the Periodic System oi Chemical Elements," E. Masurs, 6 S. Madison Avenue, La Grange, Illinois, 1957.

Volume 41, Number 4, April 1964