C. FRIEDEL and 31. UAI.SOIIS (33, 33;).--l'he object of these investigations is to ascertain whethcr bromine can be subbtitutecl in the ])lace of the hydrogen of ...
Neues Aus der Theorie der Chemischen Bindung (Schustorowitsch, B. G.). Peter Oesper. J. Chem. Educ. , 1972, 49 (5), p A318. DOI: 10.1021/ed049pA318.1.
as a rapid introduction to the important fundamentalsof the aerodynamics of compressible fluids for any scientist who suddenly finds himself involved in this field.
Note: In lieu of an abstract, this is the article's first page. Click to increase image size Free first page. View: PDF | PDF w/ Links. Related Content. Article Options.
those who use, or teach the use of, modern instrumentation and instrumentation tech- niques." The topics selected for reprinting in hook form were published ...
Walter Botsch. 2nd ed. Frmckh'sche. Verlagshandhmg, W. Keller & Co.,. Stuttgart, Germany, 1967. 88 pp. Plates and diagrams. 13 X 19.5 cm. DM 3.80 = 80.05.
duction, should furnish I~oiiiologiies vf Iivdrocarbostyrile. The lat ... 13. GOES (13, 123).-Mar- tins' yellow, or dinitrnnaphthol potassium, under the influence of re-.
Institut fur Okologische Chemie der Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Munchen. 0-8050 Freising- Attaching, West Germany. Liborius Born.
I ) . D. CffEM. 0ESI:I.I.
Abstracts from American and Foreign Journals. Berichte der Deutscheii Cheinischen Gesellschaft. Abstractor, H . E V I I R M APh.D. ~~S,
O n the Synthesi.9 of the H orrzoloytcen of €f~drocnrbostyi.iZr u n d C?LinoleJLe, ADOLFBaererr arid 0. K.Javi;sox (13, 11s).Hydrocarbostyrile must be looked U]JOll as the anhj-dride of orthoamidohydrocinnainic acid, uliicli as S I I C ~ I , is riot kiiu\vn, but whicli stands t o the tirst in the satne relation as ortliocurnaric acid t o C U I I I aririe. IIomologues uf tlic orthocrirnaric acid wcrc prepaiwl IJ!. Perkin, by the action of saiicylic- :tltleliyde upon propionic*, biityri(. and valerianic acids and sodium ; and these, after iiitration ant1 duction, should furnish I~oiiiologiiesvf Iivdrocarbostyrile. T h e lat . t e r are derived from the orthonitro acids merely, :nid if tlic crude product of nitration undergoes the process of reduction, amido acids are likewise formed from those nitro acids, wlierein the nitro group is not in tlie ortho position. T h u s the Iiydroc;trbost?rrii~of phenylvwlerianic acid wits produced from plienylangelicic acid. This, b y the action of phosphorus pentachloride, gives a body of the composition. C l ~ I ~ ~which, o ~ ~with l , HI, gives ;t base, C'l,II,lS,of tlie diaracter of chinolene, and whicah must be looked upon as an etltylc.liinolene, tlic constitution of which is represented by t h e follouiiig graphic f orrn rila. 1 x 3 -
II As regards further theoretical reasonings, arid the description of t h e various reactions, mentioned above, the reader is referred to t h e original. on Dip?~eni/ltlluirLidolLal,l~?~tI&o~, 13. GOES (13, 123).-Martins' yellow, or dinitrnnaphthol potassium, under the influence of reducing agents forms diamidonaphthol. If its hydrocliloric acid salt be heated with aniline to 100-130°, nrrirnotiia is developed and a diphenyl derivative is produced, which call easily be purified. Toluidine reacts in an analogous niaiiiier ; the reaction, however, does not proceed with t h e same ease and regularity as tlie one mentioiled above.
BER. D. D. CHEM. QESELL.
T?ce Constitu#lon of Nitroso~imet?cUlmnetatolu.2cZille,c.RIEDEL
12% On the ActiorL of Pkosphonium Iodide, upon Btsulphfde of
Carbort, H a s . J A H H(13,127).-The reaction is carried o u t in hermetically sealed tubes, at a temperature of from 120-140° The gaseous produot of t h e reaction conskts mainly of CH,. A peculiar red crystalline substance, which contains phosphorus, carbon, sulphur, hydrogen and oxygen, in proportions corresponding nearest t o t h e following formula, C,S,P,H,,O,,, is likewise formed.
Some Derivatives of Ortlbo- a n d P u r a t d u i t l i n e , G . STAATK article contains t h e genesis and description of t h e following compounds : Ortho- and paratolyl mustard oil. Orthotolylsulpho-urea and paratolylsulpho-urea. Orthotol ylglycocol. Aceto-orthohomoparoxybenzaldeh y de.
On the Heat Evolved i n the Formntlon of Cuprous CMorlde, author defends and furnishes further proof f o r his figure 59,625' C., against Berthelot's results,
JULIUSTHOMSEN (13, 138).--The 54,200'
Nlobite of the Iser Mouibtains, J. V. JANOVSKY (13,139).A niohite found b y t h e author, associated with iserite and iserene, proved to be, on examination, a columbite, containing 16.26 per cent. of
tantalic acid, and 62.64 per ccnt. of niobic acid. Iseritc is represented by t h e formula, FeTi,O, Iserene is a mixture, containing mainly titanates of iron, manganese and magnesia. Analyses of red a n d hlae spixiell and of zircon, from the same locality, are also given. On r8 New Method to Determine tice Specific Qrauttu of L i q u i d s , H. S ~ M M E R K (13, O R X143).--Will be noticed elsewhere.
Anetlhole Derivcitit-es, F. LANDOLFH (13,144).-The author describes the following derivatives of anethoie or allyl-anisole ; dihyilro-anethole ; tetrahydro-anethole ; hexahydro-anethole ; and some substances obtained by t h e action of potassium hydrate in alcoholic solution, upon anethole and monochlor-anethole. Deteivniitutlon. of iMoistfire i u Ah*, F. --Will bc noticed clsewhere.
O I Lthe Heut Ahorbed tZui*iny the Forwttctioib of CUntiogen,
JULIUS'I'iiomEs (13,152).-The author c d l s attention t o the fact, that he announced in 1854 (Poygeizdorf's i l n i u l e u , 92, 5 5 ) that, i p
the formation of cyanogen, a considerable quantity of liest is absorbed, which he calculates to :i9,'Lo()' ('., for the i i o w acacepted atomic. weights. This is cited t o rnect a stateinelit IJf Eertlielot to the effect, t h a t he had first called attention t o this hitlicrto iinknown fact, i i i 1864.
Contributions t o the Ktrowlerlge of Ygridinatricarbonic Acid the Alkaloids Of the (&LiiLi198Gr'roUp, s. I f o o G E W E R V F anti W. A . T A X DORP(13, 152).--Skraiip oxidized cinclioninic acid with potassium perinaiiganate, and obtained a tric~arl)o~)?.ridii?ic acid, which he consideretl identical with tlie sauic o1)taiiieti I J tlit! ~ direct oaitlation of the alkaloids of tliv quiriirie groiip, tlescrit)c*tl by t h c . aiitliors. Expwinients were niadc aitli t h e view t o o1)tiiiii fiirtliei. details, especially as r q p d s tlie coniposition of tlic salts of tlic trio a r h i i c acid, wlictlirr obtained froin quiiiiiiv, o r a i i p of the' otliei. alkaloids of this group. T h e y w e w iiivitrial~lgfoulit1 to 1~ itlc'iitical, arid, as far as c~oi~ld be ascertaiiieil, :ilso idciitic,zl with those o1)taiiied froni Skraup's acid.
Dsterminntiou of Oxggeri
J#'cctet*,.J. k r o ~ ~ ~ ( ;
(13, 154).--WilI he noticed elsewhere. Xeuctiotis LIL the presence Of Alutniniutn Cldoritle alctl BraA V E O N (13, lai).-'rhe author gives a short abstract of his discovery that aliirniiniuni chloride and broiiiicle iiriite with unsaturated hydrocarboils ; the products are either stable, and as such, easily prepared, or they may prove to be merely coinpounds which, tinder otller infliiences, arc easily transformed. This gives rise to what .]nay be called t h e o:Etal;tic action of these aliiminiuiii coinpounds. Pi-aparcctinth of Bioryftonuric A c i d , Mu1ai c
t i nd
s. T.\sn,r2\i: (13, 159)
Malic A c i da f r o m dl l p hbibroni yvopioih ic d c i d ,
s.'I',zs.zl.aa (13, 159). Etheri#catinn of the ,Von-xnturated Monobrcsic Acids, s. acids and alcohols are allowed to react, ethers are formed u p t o B certain mint, when the acid and alcohol remain rincoinlincd. This limit for t h r reaction differs mniewhat for various acids, but is generally fourid i i i the iieighborhood of 7 0 per caent., :30 per cent. remaining iincoriibint~d. 'l'tlc reaction, Iiowevtlr, differs grcstly, if we observe the initial velocity with wliicli tlie waotion proceeds It is greater for acids with low atoniic. weight : and i n the case of acitli with t h e sarne atoriiic weight, it is greatest with the primary, Ie*s with the secondary, and least with the tertiary acids.
ME.VS(:HL.TKIN (1% lea).-If
BER. D. D. CHEM. I3ESEI.L.
T h i s initial velocity, in a number of acids examined and given i n this paper, was, for instance, in the neighborhood of 40 f o r primary, in t h e neighborhood of 1 2 for secondary, and 7 f o r tertiary acids. T h u s we have a means of determining t h e structural formula of an acid b y determining t h e initial velocity of etherification. The Structural F o r i n d a of Sorbinic a n d HUdroeorblnlc AcidR, N. MENSCHUTKIN (13, 163).--The initial velocity of sorbinic acid was found t o be 7.96 per cent.; i t must, therefore, be looked upon as a tertiary acid-as propylmethylene carbonic acid. Sodium amalg a m produces hydrosorbinic acid, which, having an initial velocity of 43.0 per cent., is a primary acid. BeZZndoiiwiice, K. KRAUT(13, 165).-The author found in commercial atropine, a base which he described in Liebig's Avinalen, 148,236, and which he had called helladonnine. F r o m Inter investigation he inclines t o the belief, that belladonnine must be isomeric with atropine. A New Chemical Photometer, JOSEFMARIAEDER(13, 166). --Will he n1)ticed elsewhere. On the Cheinlcal Cornpoeltion of PUroxyIine a n d the Form u l a of CeUuZoae, J. M. EDER(13, 169).--'L'he author has come t o t h e conclusion, t h a t all pyroxylines must be looked upon as nitric ethers, for the following reasons : 1. Alkalies remove variable quantities of nitric acid, b u t also some nitrous acid, the formation of which is due t o secondary reactions. 2. Pyroxyline, treated with oil of vitriol, forms a cellulose sulpho acid, losing all nitric acid. 3. Iron proto salts produce with it t h e same reavtions as with other nitrates. 4. Pyroxyline, with sulphuric acid, over mercury, produces nitrog e n oxide. 5 . Reducing agents produce no amides, hut simply reproduce cellulose. T h e author produced t h e following conipoundq : Cellulose hexanitrate, C,,H,,O,(NO,),, 14.14 per cent. IS. Cellulose pentanitrate, C,H,,O,(NO,),, 12.75 " 'I Cellulose tetranitrate, C12H1606(N03)4, 11.11 " " 9.15 " " Cellulose trinitrste, C,,H,,O,(NO,),, Cellulose dinitrate, C,,H,,O,(NO,),, 6.76 " " Cellulose hexanitrate is insoluble in a mixture of alcohol and ether, while t h e others are all soluble. T h e lower rritrates may be produccd
f r o m the higher nitrates, by treatment with a tixed alkali or ammonia. A cellulose nwnoiiitrate ooald not, h o ~ e v e r ,be obtained. If the dinitrate bc acted upon b y alkalies, rehinuns >.ubstnnces a i d Iarioiis organic acids are prodiicetl. Giiri-cwtron is, therefore, t h e hexanitrate, whiles for the prodiictioii r , f c d l o t l i o n , the tetranitrate is employed. OILthe S'jMiLthesis of .MettrUZketde, I s o i n e r ~of Skutole, A. U A H E R and 0. R. J a c ~ b o a (13, 18;). Contributions to tJbe Krrowledge of tibe YrodiCcfs for*tnerl b g the Puti-efmtioIL of dlbziriten, E. SAI.lio\\ssI and I f . Sai.l;o\v~~
Liebig's Annalen der Cheniie. Abstractor. GEO. A . PROCH,+ZKA, Ph.D.
TJM boiling points oj' tJbe Esters a t d Ether. esters of the Oxi-acids, LUDWIG SCHREINER (197, 1-26).-The article refers t o t h e preparation and regularities with regard t o t,he boiling points (see also this J 6 U R N A L , I , 290), of a series of esters and ether esters of glycolic, lactic, n-oxibutyric arid salicylic acids. T h e simple esters (oxi-acid compounds, with alkyl substituted in place of the hydrogen of t h e acid, OH) of glycolic, !actic and oxibutyric acid, are neiitral colorless liquids, which are immediately decomposed b y water. An increase of t h e alkyl by C'I12 is attendetl by ;i rise of t h e hoiling point, by about 10'. T h e esters of glycolic acid were o1)tnined b y tlie reaction o f t l ~ y n o t l i i i i n glycolate, monochloi~acetic t ' h t w ' :inti tlie absolute alcohol it: senled tubes a t 160'. ( ' H 2 0 J I . C O O S a ('M,CI.('OOC,H, (',Hr,0II
= .L(C~1,OI~.(.~OOC,II,) NaCI.
Oxibntyric ethyl ester was obtairied in like nianiiei*, i n the reactioii of ?;odiuin (r-oxibiityrate, from butyric. ctliyl ester and alcohol, at 180". 1,:lctic esters were obtained by heating pure lactic. acid and abso\lite alcohol to 160". 'l'lie glyeolic ether esters are colorless neutral liquids, heavier than water, readily volatile with water i'apor. They are very dificultlj- saponified. T h e compound lactic esters are partly i~isoluble i i i water. The tr-oxibutyric et,her esters a r e nentral liquids, of (lisagreeable otlor, which are very sparingly soluble in water. T h e boiling points of the methyl esters are lower b y about IS" than those of