Chemical knowledge in the Old Testament - ACS Publications

Chemical knowledge in the Old Testament. Saul Isserow, and Hugo Zahnd. J. Chem. Educ. , 1943, 20 (7), p 327. DOI: 10.1021/ed020p327. Publication Date:...
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Chemical Knowledge in the Old Testament SAUL ISSEROW and HUGO ZAHND Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, New York


F WE look into the Old Testament withthe expectat ~ o nof finding a mass of chemical information, we are sure to be disappointed. The ancient Israelites were a pastoral people (1). Whatever scientificknowledge they had was borrowed from neighboring peoples, particularly the Egyptians, Babylonians, and Phoenicians (2). Hebrew wisdom was purely practical. Theoretical speculation was restrained by a strict monotheism and attempts to probe the secrets of God were discouraged by pointing to the futility of such efforts (3). Direct information, however, is given in the sacred book with regard to the sources, uses, and processes applied to a number of specifically identified metallic and nonmetallic substances. APPLICATION OF HEAT


The hearth of the altar was the moked (22). There is a reference to a brazier used in the King's palace (23). The fuel most commonly mentioned is coal, gahelet (24), which is really charcoal (25), since true coal is not found in Palestine (26). I t is the live embers obtained from the pehum, the unkindled embers (27), which were used by the smith (28). In one case a young son is referred to by his mother as "my coal which is left" (29). The hot coals were used to bake bread (30). They are also referred to as a symbol of the punishment for the wicked (31). Although the timber was scarce (32),the fuel was usually wood, as indicated by its use in sacrifices (33). Some of the sources of wood were rushes (34), thorns (35), and the broom shrub (36), the latter giving the best charcoal (37). The sources of the timber were often unusual, such as the wood of carts (38)and threshing instruments (39). The process of baking often involved the placing of dough on glowing stones or coal (40). A symbol of the exile of the Jews was their use of human and cow dung for fuel when baking (41). There is no information in the Bible to indicate how the Hebrews obtained fire (42). Its divine origin was unquestioned (43). Thus, "His fury is poured out like fire" (44),shows that the Israelites attributed a fluid nature to fire.

The most primitive operation to bring about chemical changes is the application of beat. The Hebrews were familiar with a variety of methods of applying heat to bring about chemical changes. The melting furnace used to refine metals was known as the kur (4). It is used figuratively to represent the testing of the individual (5) and the afflictions of the people as a whole (6). The trials of the individual are also compared to the testing of gold in the mazref, the goldsmith's crucible (5). "The words of the Lord are METALS, METALLURGY, AND METAL WORKING pure words, as silver tried in a crucible', (7), the alil being used in this case (8). Although Palestine was noted for its lack of minerals, Fire was applied to other substances besides metals. the Hebrews were definitely familiar with some procThe kibshan (9, 10) was a kiln for bakmg pottery or esses of mining and metallurgy. The identification burning lime (11). It was characterized by the smoke of the metals known through their importation is which rose from i t (9) and by the soot that was left difficult because we are not sure to what extent the Hein it (10). A similar structure was the attum (IZ),the brews distinguished between them (45). We may say, "burning fiery furnace'' with a perpendicular shaft however, that gold, silver, iron, copper (or its alloys)' from the top to the bottom, opening a t this point to (46), tin, and lead (47) were known and used. It is enable the extraction of the fused lime (13). The very worthy of note that the first four occur native or can large kiln used for the manufacture of bricks was called readily be reduced to their native state (48). Gold, the malben (14),which has the same root as the Hebrew copper, and iron were known before the flood (49). for brick, l'benah (15). From the several lists of the metals that we find (50). The portable baking oven, tannur (16),was a necessity we may deduce the order in which the Israelites esin every household (17). It was alarge earthenware jar teemed the respective elements. This order is gold, which was heated on the bottom and then had the silver, copper, iron, and lead. I n the two references dough placed on it (18). It is used as a symbol of the in Joshua (50),silver is placed before gold. The posigreat heat that will be applied in the punishment of tion of tin is uncertain. I n one case this element is the wicked (19). With the return of the Jews to placed between iron and lead (51); another, we find it Jerusalem we read of the repairing of the tower of placed between copper and iron (52); and finally we furnaces (20). Another structure used for baking was discover it in the last ~osition(53). ~, the kirayin, a portable cooking stone capable of holding 1 The question of the identity of nehnsket will be discussed two pots, as indicated by the plural construction in the mare fully below. Meanwhile the term copper indicates the element and its alloys, bronze and brass. Hebrew (21). 32!7

The fact that the Jews did not have mines in their own country did not prevent them from figuratively referring to the search for underground treasures (54, 55). This narrative, which is "obscure but follows the sequence of actual operations" (56),was probably based on information obtained by watching the Egyptians in Sinai (57). We read of the darkness in the remote depths, the breaking of the shaft, the swinging to and fro, and the inflow of water. Metal working was an ancient craft among the Hebrews (58), as may be inferred from the ascribing of its discovery to Tuba1 Cain (59). Yet, despite the knowledge of the craft among his own people (60), Solomon imported Phoenician craftsmen for the construction of the Temple (61). The removal of the dross from the metal, usually silver, is mentioned several times (62). The only part of the process described is the blowing of the 6re on the ore to melt it (63) and the blowing of the bellows to consume the lead (64). This process of purification is usually indicated by a verb of the root zarof (65). The verb is used figuratively to indicate the catharsis of the individual (66) or of the nation (67) and the purity of the word of the Lord, i. e., its having been tested (68). In the course of time, the word zoref (69) or neearef (70) came to be used as a noun representing the smith, particularly the goldsmith. The goldsmith's crucible, manef (71) is also derived from the same root. Another verb depicting the process of purification of gold (72) and silver (73) is zakok. The silver is said to be relined seven times, which would seem to indicate its being passed through the flame that number of times. Very often the metal was molten (74) so that it could be cast (75). In this manner were produced the golden calf (76) and the silver idols which served as the object of the prophet's polemics (77). Sometimes the solid metal was beaten, as in the golden cherubim (78),and candlesticks (79),and the trumpets of silver (80). The metals gold ( S l ) ,silver (82),and copper (83) were often beaten into thin plates. Graven work overlaid with gold is mentioned (84). Reference is made to the process of engraving as applied to metals (85) and tablets (86) and appears to be similar to the procedure nsed in the case of precious stones (87). The sharpening of objects is also described (88). THE METALS

An investigation of the multitude of references to nehoshet in the Old Testament is made d a c u l t by the lack of exact knowledge with regard to the identity of this metal. The Hebrew equivalent is variously translated as brass, bronze, or copper. The best interpretation is that copper is meant since this metal was known mainly in the natural state (89). We should bear in mind that the Latin and Greek words for copper also denote brass and bronze (90)and the same probably applies to the Hebrew (91). As far as brass is concerned, even if it was known, the Hebrews were not

aware of the presence of another metal besides copper (92). We should remember that zinc was unknown as a pure metal (93). Information as to the source of the copper used by the Hebrews is limited, We read of its being obtained from the Hills (94), the reference probably being to Aleppo (95), since copper was unknown in Palestine proper (96). The capture of copper by David from Hadadezer, king of Zobah (97), should be correlated with the presence of mines near Zobah (98). The trade of the Phoenicians in this metal, which was obtained from Cyprus (96,99),is referred to (100). Copper or bronze was often used for annor (101) and hence was numbered among the spoils of war (102). In general, copper was preferred when a durable substance for objects commonly used was desired. Thus, it was used in the Tabernacle (103) for the clasps or taches for the curtains (104), sockets for the screen (105), overlaying of the altar (106), the grating and rings of the altar (107), the covering of the staves of the altar (108),the sockets of the pillars and the pins of the court (log), the laver (110), and all the vessels ( l i l ) . Similarly it was nsed in Solomon's Temple (112); the pillars and their capitals (113), the sea with its bases and their wheels and axles (114), the altar (115), the lavers (116), the scaffold (117), and the vessels (118). The amount of copper used in the construction of the Temple was so tremendous that it could not be weighed (119). Moses' serpent which was used to cure the persons bitten by the "fiery serpents" (120) and which was later worshipped as a deity (121) was made of copper, undoubtedly because of its durability. We can only speculate as to the etymological relation between nehoshet and the Hebrew for serpent, nahush. The properties of copper were often used figuratively. Its hardness was used for comparisons of the hardness of heaven and earth during drought (122),the strength of the doors that God breaks (123), fortitude (124), and stubborness (125). The sparkling of the copper (perhaps brass) is used to represent a glistening object (126). In one case "the house of Israel" is as the dross of silver, one of whose elements is copper (127). The edge of the vessel, nebwhah, denotes the filthiness of women (128). Copper was used for shackles, particularly for war captives, as indicated by the similarity of the word for shackles, nehushtayim, to nehoshet (129). The use of a plumbline is referred to once (130). There can be no question as to the high esteem in which the Hebrews held gold. This high esteem is indicated by the use of the metal in the Tabernacle (131) for the ark (132), the cherubims (133), the table (134), the candlesticks (135), the boards and pillars (136), the altar (137), the vessels (138), the clasps (139), and the priestly vestments (140). Similarly it was used in the Temple of Solomon for the overlaying of the house, doors, and floor (141),for the altar (l42), for the cherubim (143), for the candlesticks (144), and for the vessels (145). Gold was the most precious kind

of money known and hence was often numbered among the spoils of war and among the tribute paid by vanquished kingdoms (146). We can therefore understand the frequent references to gold as a symbol of wealth (147). The metal was frequently used for ornamentations (148). Some of the objects for which gold was used were wedges (149), shields (150), vessels (151), the king's crown (152), throne (153), and scepter (154), candlesticks (155), couches (156), and in clothing (157). Its high esteem explains its freqnent use for idols (158), among which are included calves (159). Palestine itself had no source of gold, as is indicated by freqnent references to its importation. Some of the foreign sources are the land of Havilah (160), which is believed to be in the neighborhood of Damascus (161), Ophii (162), a district in southeastern Arabia (163), Tarshish (164), a distant western point of uncertain identity (165), and Uphaz (166). Some of the individuals who contributed to the supply of gold for Solomon's Temple were David, who numbered i t among the spoils of war (167), Hiram of Tyre (168), and the queen of Sheba (169). Besides zahub some of the other words used for gold were pamayim (170), huruz (171), ketem Ophir (172), and fiaz (173). The differentiation between the various names is not clear although the last two seem to indicate the source of the metal. The chief use of silver was as money and we even find that the word for silver, kesef, is used for money (174). Silver was used for many articles: trumpets (175), chains (176), vessels (177), candlesticks (178), ornaments (179), crowns (180), studs (181), pillars (182), turrets (183), rods (184), and tables (185). It was often used for idols (186). Silver was used sparingly in the Tabernacle (187) for the sockets (188), fillets of the pillars (lag), hooks (190), and overlaying of capitals (190). In the construction of the Temple, no specific use of silver is mentioned, and it is even said that it was so abundant that i t was of no value (191). Yet, we read later of its use for the vessels of the Temple by the Babylonians (192). As in the case of gold, we find the metal used to represent wealth (193). The only source of silver given is Tarshish (194). Another metal mentioned several times is hashmal, used as a simile for brightness and usually translated electmm (195). Although there is some uncertainty as to its identity, the most prevalent opinion is that i t is an alloy of gold and silver (196). We must bear in mind the fact that this alloy was found in the native state and was considered an independent metal till the sixth century of the present era (197). We may add here that in modem Hebrew the word for electricity is the same hashmal (198). An early knowledge of iron is indicated by the attributing of its use to Tuba1 Cain (199). It is doubtful, however, whether Palestine itself contained any iron (200). The rocks of iron (201) and Og's iron bedstead (202) were probably natural rock formations of black basalt containing 50 per cent iron (203). Iron

was traded by the Phoenicians (204) who apparently obtained it from Tarshish (205). It is also enumerated among the spoils of war taken from the Midianites (206). When sharp objects were needed, iron was the metal used-in pens (207), axes (208), spear heads (209) threshing instruments (210), armament (211),and nails (212). It was also used for vessels (213), bars and rods (214), chariots (215), and fetters (216), a n d , yokes (217). Figuratively iron represented hardness (218) and strength (219). An iron neck was a symbol of extreme stubbornness (220). The use of iron tools in the construction of holy places was strictly forbidden (ZZl), probably because the iron used was imported. Lead is referred to several times, mainly as one of the drosses of silver (222), in which sense it is used to represent those that stray from the path (223). It is enumerated among the spoils taken from the Midianites (224). Like the other metals it was ohtained by the Phoenicians from Tarshish (225). Lead was used to fill in the letters of an inscription in rock (226, 227). The use of the sinking of lead in water to describe the drowning of the Egyptians in the Red Sea (228) is connected with the use of lead by Egyptian fishermen as sinkers (227). Tin was considered an impurity in silver (229) and was obtained by separation as its name indicates (230). It was also among the prizes of war taken from the Midianites (224) and among the metals ohtained by the Phoenicians from Tarshish (225). COMPOUND SUBSTANCES

To say that ancient Hebrew knowledge begins and ends with the metals is incorrect. Besides metals, the Jews used other materials which we designate as compound substances. That salt was known and commonly used for a variety of purposes by the ancient Hebrews is seen from the numerous references to it in different connections. I t is enumerated with other commodities such as wine, wheat, and oil (231). In addition, several places are named through their association with salt: Ge-melah (232), Tel-melah (233), and Irhamelah (234). The importance of salt is seen from the prophecy of Ezekiel in which the purifying action of the Temple well is described (235,236). Salt was used on sacrifices (237) and with food in general to give it taste (238). Its use in this manner is connected with its being a symbol of the permanence of a covenant (239) which was due to the observation that salt does not undergo decay (240). A knowledge of the medicinal properties of salt is illustrated in its use by the prophet Elisha to rid the River Jordan of a plague with which it was infested (241). Its use by the midwife on the newborn child after the cutting of the navel is also described (242). This practice is followed to this day in the Near East to protect the child against evil spirits (243).

On the other hand, i t is interesting to note that salt is used several times as a symbol of perpetual desolation (244). Several explanations have been offered for this association. It must have been known that an excess of salt on the ground makes the soil sterile (245). This fact was further indicated by the absolute barrenness of the region near the Dead Sea (246). Other references suggest still different explanations (247, 248). Although there are two Hebrew words, neter (249) and borit (250), commonly translated as soap, and a thud similar one, bor (251) whose use as a cleansing agent is implied, these substances are not really soap as we understand it, but rather alkalies obtained from different sources. Neter is not the modern nitre, which was unknown to the ancients (252), but rather natron (sodium carbonate) (253). This substance therefore is a mineral alkali whereas borit is a vegetable alkali (254). An interesting aid in identifying these alkalies as the carbonates is the verse which refers to the effervescentaction of vinegar on neter (255). The third substance, 607, is a mixture of water and the ashes of wood and plants, the water dissolving the alkali salts of the ashes (256). A recent standard Hebrew dictionary defines bor as a mixture of water and neter (257). A field outside Jerusalem was named after the cleaners who were regarded as skilled craftsmen (258). Glass was one of the greatest luxuries known to the Hebrews (259). The "treasures hid in the sand" mentioned in Moses' blessing (260) referred to the white sands of Akko on the Mediterranean coast used for glass manufacture (261). Tacitus tells us that "sands are mixed with nitre, dissolved by the action of fire and soon afterwards harden into glass" (262). The great value of glass may be appreciated from the mentioning of windows only in Solomon's Temple (263) and the King's palace (264). Vinegar was the only acid known to the ancients (265). It is reasonable t o assume that the word translated vinegar, hemar, is used for any acid drink (266). Vinegar was obtained from wine or cider (267), either from the lees or by the addition of barley to the wine or cider (268). That its relation to fermentation was known is shown by the fact that its root is hamor, meaning to ferment (269). Its action on natron was also known (270). Vinegar was used as a drink (271) and as a seasoning with food (272). That i t was not thought of very highly as a drink may be inferred from the plaint of the Psalmist that i t was given to him by his enemies when he was thirsty (273), and also from the knowledge of its effect on the teeth (274). Dyes were known t o the ancient Hebrews and were considered as a mark of wealth. We read of "coats of many colors" worn by Joseph (275) and by Tamar (276). Dyes were also among the spoils of war (277). Colored garments were known, and are referred to in similes (278). Although the knowledee was obtained from fdreign countries (279), famigarity with the

process of dyeing is shown by the reference to dipped attire (280). The three dyes, "blue, and purple, and scarlet," are continually mentioned as a unit in the description of the vestments and the appurtenance of the Tabernacle (281). The description of these dyes is rather vague and the absolute identification of a specific shade is impossible (282). The blue dye, tekelet, was used in the T ' e r n a c l e (281, 283) and Solomon's Temple (284). Most often it was used to dye linens (285). Indigo, obtained by the Egyptians from India, was probably the dye used (286). Ezekiel's prophecy suggests that the dye was brought from India by the Phoenicians (287). Purple, argaman, was also used for the vestments of the Tabernacle (281, 288) and the Temple (289). Many references refer to the dyeing of clothing with this substance (290). I n one case (291) it is used metaphorically to describe the beloved one's hair, the reference being probably to the brilliance rather than to the color. The dye was the famous Tyrian purple, extracted from a small gland in the throat of the shellfish Murex. The shells are found adhering to rocks in the Mediterranean (292). The scarlet dye, shani, was probably the one most commonly used. Besides its use in the Tabernacle (281,293),we read several times of red threads used for various purposes (294). The frequent occurrence of the word tola, meaning insect (295), with shani points toward the origin of the dye, the cochineal-like insect kermes which lives on the Syrian Holm-oak (296). Hoefer offersthe interesting suggestion that the root of shani shows that the substance was immersed twice into the dye solution (297). The use of other red dyes, the identity of which cannot be established, is indicated by references to "skins dyed red" (298) and to crimson, karmil, with which some of the temple linens were dyed (299). There was a bold use of tint in ancient times (300), yet there are but two direct references t o paints used (301). In both cases we read of the use of vermillion, shashar, for the decoration of walls. I n the second case (302), the text tells of images painted on walls. This paint was the red oxide of lead (303). Several references point to the use of a black powder, puk, by women to darken the edges of the eyelids (304). This powder contained stibnite, cupric oxide, lead sulfide, and even the powder of lampblack or burnt almonds. Stibnite, the most precious component, was imported (305). In the phrase "paint thine eyes" the Hebrew root of the verb indicates a blue color (306, 307). The high value of 9uk in Biblical times is shown by its inclusion among the highly treasured objects used in the construction of the Temple (308) and the prophecy of its abundance in the days t o come (309). After his recovery, Job named one of his daughters Keren-happuch, "horn of eye paint" (310). In the story of Esther we read of ointments or lotions of uncertain composition (311)

In their writing (312) the Hebrews used an ink, deyo (313), the principal ingredient of which was lampblack (314). Olmstead describes potsherds dating back to the time of Omri, Ahab, and Jerohoam 11. These pieces from the broken pots were marked with notes scribbled with carbon ink (315). An early knowledge of wine, yayin, among the Hebrews is indicated by the ascription of its use t o persons mentioned early in the Biblical narrative: Noah (316), Abraham (317), Lot's daughters (318), and Isaac (319). I n the latter case it is mentioned among the blessings of the soil. The winepresses were underground excavations (320). These constructions consisted of two levels. The grapes were placed into the upper level, gat (321), which was hoth large and shallow; the expressed juice was collected in the lower level, yekeb (322), which was both small and deep. The two levels were separated by a partition of native rock. This partition was pierced to form a hole through which the wine flowed from the upper to the lower level (323). The juice was usually expressed by treading (324). The term "foaming wine," hemar (325),indicates knowledge of a secondary fermentation. The role of the dregs was appreciated (326). The settling of the lees is used to symbolize ease and repose (327). Very often the wine was blended with aromatic substances (328). There was another beverage, shekar, that was almost as common as wine (329). It was probably the fermented juice of plant products other than the grape (330). The prohibition of the use of leaven and hence leavened bread during the Passover holiday is well known (331). The substances that had undergone such fermentation were also prohibited a t sacrifices (332). The leaven, a piece of old fermented sour dough, was kneaded with the fresh dough (333), and after the fermentation had proceeded, a portion was set aside t o he used as the inoculum for the next batch of dough (334). It can be readily understood that originally hread was unleavened (335) and that even later, the fermentation was omitted in ordinary life (336). The reason for the prohibition against the use of leaven was probably due to its being regarded as somethmg old, corrupt, and associated with putrefaction (337). Further evidence of the higher status of unleavened hread is its having been served by Lot to the Angels (338). The building materials used by the Hebrews were varied. The finest buildings were made of stone, usually the limestone of the mountains (339). The most common materials were bricks made by mixing clay with teben, chopped wheat, or barley straw, and then allowing this mixture to air-dry (340). The use of a brick-kiln, mulben, is mentioned (341). Asphalt, bitumen, or pitch (342), obtained from the Dead Sea (343) and slimepits (344), was converted into mortar or potter's clay, homer (345) and melet (346). I n its liquid form. the bitumen was used as pitch (347).

Two forms of plaster, tiah (348) and sid (349), were used. This plaster consisting of lime or gypsum was often applied to walls before painting (350). The identification of sid is indicated by the prophet who inveighs against Moab "because he burned the bones of the king of Edam into lime (sid)" (351). A varnish kophn, was used to waterproof papyrus boats (352). Frequent references to earthen vessels in the Old Testament (353, 354, 355, 356, 357), indicate that pottery was a widespread art (358). These vessels were nsed in everyday l i e (353) and in sacrifices (354). Pottery frequently symbolized an easily breakable object (355). The sheds were used "to take fire from the hearth" (356). The roughness and sharpness of these vessels are used figuratively (357). Specific details regarding the manufacture and particular forms of pottery are few. The potters apparently had their quarter in a valley a t the outskiis of Jerusalem (359) where they obtained their clay (360). A description of the potter's home mentions the use of wheels (361). The control exercised by the potter over his raw materials symbolizes the control exercised by God over his creature, man (362), and over the universe as a whole (363). This superiority of master over material describes the superiority of Cyrus over his enemies (364). The failure of clay t o mingle with metals is also used figuratively (365). We read of a bottle, called bakbuk, probably after the sound produced by knocking on it (366). Sulfur is mentioned a number of times in relation to divine judgment (367),but none of its uses are stated. Its usual association with fire (367, 368) seems to indicate that i t is really sulfur dioxide with its characteristic odor that is meant. The melting of wax, donag, is used figuratively several times (369, 370, 371). In one case the comparison involves the heart of a man beset by his enemies (369). I n another case we find it used to symbolize the manner in which the wicked shall perish (370), and in still another case it is likened to the melting of the mountains before the might of the Lord (371). There are two substances which are mentioned specifically as being used as medicinals. These are oil (372) and balm of Gilead (373). Finally there is a single reference to a solder, debek, used by the smith (374). The survey of chemical knowledge in the Old Testament has shown a definite familiarity with hoth simple and compound substances. I t is important to note that all this knowledge is practical and empirical. There is no attempt to correlate any available information or to broaden it and formulate a hypothesis of any kind. The only hypothesis offered by the Hebrews was the notion of monotheism, if we may consider it a scientific hypothesis (375). The contribution of the Hebrews to our civilization was the concept of moral unity contrasted with the scientific concept of physical unity postulated by the Greeks (376).

(1) BERT~OLLET, "A History of Hebrew Civilization," translated by Dallas. Harrap & Co., Ltd.. London, 1926.p. 27. (2) KOPP, "Geschichte der Chemie," Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1843, Vol. I., p. 24; HOERER,"Historie de La Chimie," Didot freres, Paris, 186669, Vol. I, p. 34. (3) Deuteronomy xxix, 28 (xxix, 29); Job xi, 7-12; xii, 1-25; o p cit., p. Ecclesiastes i; Daniel, ii, 20; BERT~OLET, 285. (4) Ezekiel, xxii, 18, 20,22; "Furnace," TDB, p. 205; "Furnace," -- EB, Vol. 2, p. 1576; "Furnace," HDB, Vol. 2, p. 13. (5) Pmverbs xvii, 3; xxvii, 21. (6) Deuteronomy iv, 20; Isaiah xlviii, 10; Jeremiah xi, 4. (7) Psalmsxii, 7 (xii, 6). (8) "Furnace," EB, Vol. 2, p. 1576; "Furnace," JE, Vol. 5, - .-. . ......., -. . Exodus ix, 8, 10; xix, 18. "Furnace," TDB, p. 205; "Furnace," EB, Vol. 2, p. 1576; "Furnace, HDB, Vo1.2, p. 73; DRIVER,"The Book of Exodus," The Cambridge Blble for Schools and Colleees. Cambridge Universitv Press. Cambridge. . p. 71. ~ n g l i n d 1911. , Daniel ~ i i6, , 15. 17,19-23, 26;, "Furnace; TDB, p. 205; Furnace," EB, Vol. 2, p. 1576; "Furnace, HDB, Vol 2, p. 73; M O N T G O ~ R Y . "A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Daniel," I&. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1927, p. 202. (14) I1 Samuel xii, 31; Jeremiah xliii, 9; Nahum iii, 14; Furnace," JE, Vol. 5, p. 530. (15) KAUFMAN, Editor, "English-Hebrew Dictionary." second edition, Dvir Co., Ltd., Tel-Aviv, Palestine, 1938, p. 103. (16) Genesis xv, 17; Leviticus vii, 9; xi, 35; xxvi, 26; Hosea vii, 4, 6, 7. "Furnace." JE, Vol. 5, p. 530. "Bread," HDB, Vol. 1, p. 318; "Bread," EB, Vol. 1, p. 605; K E N N E DLeviticus ~, and Numbers, "The Century Bible," Nelson &Sons, Ltd., Lpndou, 1913, p. 87. Malachi iii, 19 (iv, 1) ; Psalms xxl, 10 (xxl, 9). Nehemiah iii. 11. Leviticusxi, 35; KENNEDY,op. cit., p. 87. Leviticus vi, 2 (vi, 9); Isaiah xxniii, 4; Psalms cii, 4. Jeremiah xxxvi, 22.23. Leviticus xvi, 12; 11Samuel xxii, 9, 13; Psalms xviii, 9, 13 (xviii, 8, 12); Job xli. 13 (xli, 21); Isaiah xlvii, 14; Ezekiel i, 13; x, 2 ; Proverbs vi, 28; xxv, 22. "F?~rna-e .-...-. .," HDR. . - - - Vol. 2. o. 73. "Coal." HDB. Vol. 1, D. 455. ~ r o v e i b xxvi; s p. 21.' Isaiah xliv, 12; liv, 16. I1 Samuel xiv, 7. Isaiahxliv, 19. Psalms cxl, 11 (cxl, 10). PARTINGTON, "Origins and Development of Applied Chemistry," Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1935, p. 482. Leviticus vi, 5 (vi. 12); Genesis xxii, 3, 6, 7.



ZThe following abbreviations have been used: EB "Encvclo~aedia Biblica." A. & C. Black, London,

iscis, 4 VOIS.

HDB HASTINGS, Editor, "A Dictionary of the Bible," Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1898, 5 vols. ICC "International Critical Commentary," Charles Scribner's Sons, New York (18951937). "The Jewish Encyclopedia," Funk & Wagnalls Co., JE New York and London, 1906, 12 vols. -TDB "The Temde Dictionanr of the Bible," Dent & Sons, Ltd., ~ o k d a n1910. , UJE "The Universal Jewish Encylopedia," The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Inc., New York. 193941. 10 vois. The numbering of the verses follows that used in the standard Hebrew and King James versions of the Bible. In every case where the numbering of theverses is different, two references are given, the 6rst to the Hebrew version, and the second, in parenthesis, to the King James version of the Bible. I n the case of differences due to translation, the Hehrew interpretattons have been followed.

Job xli, 12 (xli. 20). Psalmslviii, 10 (Iviii, 9). Psalms cxx, 4. BRIGGSAND BRIGOS,"A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Psalms," ICC, Charles Scribner's Sons,New Ywk, 1W7,Vol. 2, p. 445. I Samuel vi, 14. U Samuel xxiv, 22; I Kings xix, 21. I Kings xix, 6; Isaiah vi, 6. Ezekiel iv, 12, 15. op. cit., p. 482. PARTINOTON, I Kings xviii, 38; II Samuel xxii, 9; Psalms xviii, 9 (xviii, 8 ) ; Job xli, 10-13 (di, 18-21); I1 Chronicles vii, 1. Nahum i, 6. PMTINGTON, op. cit.,p. 481; KOPP,op. cit., V d . 3, p. 91. The question of the identity of rzehoshet will be discussed more fully below. See also (89, 90, 91. 92, 93). VENaeLe, "History of Chemistry," D. C. Heath & Co., New York, 1922, p. 2 ; K o ~ 09. , cd.,Vol. 1, p. 24. MEYER,"A History of Chemistry," translated by McGOWAN, Macmillan & Co., Ltd., London, 1898, p. 11. Genesis ii, 11; iv, 22. Exodus x d i , 24,25,29; Numbers xxxi, 22; Joshua vi, 19; xxii, 8 ; Ezekiel xxii, 18; Isaiah lx, 17; I Chronicles xxii, 14, 16; I1 Chronicles ii, 6, 13, (ii, 7, 14); Daniel ii. 38-45, Numbers xxxi, 22. Ezekiel xxii. 18. Ezekiel xxii. 20. Sob iii. 21: ' Proverbs ii. 4. job xxviii,l-11. P. 481. PARTINGTON, Op. d.. "Metals," JE, Vol. 8, p. 513; "Mines, Mining," HDB, Vol. 3, p. 374; "Metals, Metallurgy, Mines, Mining," TDB, p. 459. RADIN,"The Life of the People in Biblical Times." The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 1929. D. 81. ~ e n e s i ' s ; ~22. , Hosea xiii, 2; Isaiah XI, 19; I Samuel xiii, 19; I Kings vii, 14; 11 Chronicles xxiv, 12. I Kings v, 1G20 (v, 2-6); I1 Chronicles ii, 6, 12, 13 (ii, 7, 13, 14). Psalms cxix, 119; Isaiah i, 22,25; Ezekiel xxii, 18, 19, 20; Proverbs xxv. 4; xxvi. 23. Ezekiel xxii. 18. 19. 20. Jeremiah % 29. . Malachiiii, 2,3. Psalms xvii, 3; xxvi, 2; lxvi, 10; cv, 19. Isaiah i, 25; xlviii, 10; Jeremiah ix, 6 (ix, 7); Zechariah xiii, 9; Daniel xi, 35; xii, 10. 11 Samuel xxii, 31; Psalms xii, 7 (xii, 6); cxix, 140; Proverbs rxx, 5. Isaiah xl, 19; xli, 7; dvi, 6; Proverbs xxv, 4; Nehemiah iii, 31. Proverbs xvii, 3; xxvii, 21; Malachi iii, 2, 3. Proverbs xvii, 3; xxvii, 21. Job xxviii, 1. Psalms xii. 7 (xii, 6). I1 Kinm xxii, 9; I1 Chronicles xxxiv, 17; Isaiah XI, 19; aliv,-10. I Kings vii, 23, 24, 37; 11 Chronicles iv, 3. Exodus xxxi, 4; Nehemiah ix, 18. Judges xvii, 3 , 4 ; Psalms cvi, 19; Isaiah, xlii, 17; Hosea xi, 2; Nahum i, 14; Hahakuk ii, 18. Exodus xxv. 18; xxxvii, 7. Exodus xxv, 35; Numbers viii, 4. Numbers x. 2. Exodus xxxix, 3 Jeremiah x, 9. Numbers xvii, 3 (mi, 38). Isaiah xl, 19; I Kings vi, 35. Exodus xxxii, 4; I Kings vii, 36; II Chronicles ii, 13 (ii, 14). Isaiah viii, 1. Exodus xxviii. 9. Genesis iv, 22; I Kings vii, 45; Psalms lii, 4 (lii, 2) ; vii, 13 (vii, 12).

"Brass," TDB, p. 72; "Copper," JE, Vol. 4, p. 260; "Metsls," JE viii, 514. "A Treatise on Chemistry," ROSCOEAND SCXORLEMMER, Sixth edition, Macmillan & Co., Ltd., London, 1923, Vol. 2, p. 412. LOI~HOUSE, Ezekiel, "The Century Bible," Nelson & Sons, Ltd., London, 1913, p. 219; "Brass," TDB, -- ~ -

op. cii., eol. 2, p. 661. STRUNZ,"Uber die Vorgeschichte und die Anfinge der Chemie," DEaIcKE, Leipzig und Wien, 1906, p. 52. Deuteronomy viii, 9; Zechariah vi, 1. D n r v ~ n , "A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Deuteronomy," ICC, Charles Scribner'sSons, New York, 1895, p. 109. "Mines, Mining," HDB, Vol. 3, p. 375. I Chronicles xviii, 8, 10. OLMSTEAD, "History of Palestine and Syria," Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1931, p. 323.

rhid . ... ., . 287 . ..;,

Ezekiel xxvn, 13. I Samuel xvii, 5, 6, 38; 11 Samuel xxi, 16; xxii, 35; I Kings xiv, 27; Psalms xviii, 35; Job xx, 24; n Chroniclesxii, 10. I1 Samuel viii, 10. Exodus xxv, 3; xxxv, 5,24; xnviii, 29. Exodus xxvi, 11; xxxvi. 18. Exodus xxvi, 37; xxxvi, 38; xxxviii, 19. Exodus xxvii, 2; xxxviii, 2, 30; II Chronicles i. 5, 6; Numbers xvii, 4 (xvi, 39). Exodus xxvii, 4; xxxviii, 4, 5, 30. Exodus xxvii, 6; rxxviii, 6. Exodus xxvii, 10, 11, 17-19; xxxviii, 10, 11, 17, 20, 30. Exodus xxx, 18; xxxviii. 8. Exodus xxvii, 3; xxxviii, 3, 30; Leviticus vi, 21 (vi, 28); Numbers xvii, 4 (mi. 39). II Chronicles xxiv. 12. I1 Kings xxv, 13, 14, 16, 17; I Chronicles xviii, 8 ; Jeremiah lii, 17, 20, 22. I Kings vii, 24, 27, 38, 39, 43, 44; 1 Chronicles xviii, 8 ; Jeremiah lii, 17, 20. I1 Kings xvi, 14, 15, 17; Ezekiel ix, 2 ; I1 Chronicles iv, 1 - Gi 7

- ..--. ...,

. . ,. . .

I1 Chronicles vi, 13. I Kings vii, 45; II Kings xxv, 14; Jeremiah lii, 18; I Chronicles xviii, 8 ; 11Chronicles iv, 16; Ezra viii, 27. I Kings vii, 47; I1 Kings xxv, 16; I Chronicles xxii, 3, 14, 16: -I1 Chronicles iv.. 18:. -Teremiah lii. 20. Numbers ~ x i 9. . I1 Kings xviii, 4. Deuteronomy xxviii, 23; Leviticus xxvi, 19. Isaiah d v , 2; Psalms cvii, 16. Jeremiah i, 18; xv, 20; Micah iv, 13; Job vi, 12; xl, 18; xli, 19 (Ail 27). Isaiah xlviii, 4. Ezekiel i, 7; al, 3. Ezekiel xxii. 18. 20 Ezekiel xvi.36; xxiv, 11. Judges xvi, 21; I1 Samuel iii, 34; II Kings xxv, 7; Jeremmh lii, 11; Lamentations iii, 7; I1 Chronicles xxxvi, 6. Amos vii, 7, 8. Exodus xxv, 3; xxviii, 5; xxxv, 5,22,32; xxxviii, 24. Exodus xxv, 11, 12, 17; nxvii, 2 4 , 6. Exodus xxv, 18; xxxvii, 7. Exodus xnv, 24-26,28; xxxvii, 11-13, 15. Exodus xxv, 31, 36; xxxvii, 17, 22, 24; Numbers viii, 4. Exodus xxvi, 29, 32, 37; xxxvi, 34, 36, 38. Exodus n x , 3 5 , xxxvii. 26-28; xudx, 38; xl, 5, 26; Numbers iv, 11. Exodus xxv, 29; xxxvii, 16; Numbers vii, 20, 26, 32, 38, 44. SO. 56. 62., 68.. 74.. 80., 84.. 86. ~~, Exodus xxvi, 6. Exodus xxviii, 6, 8, 11, 13, 15, 22-24, 26, 33. 34, 36; xxxix, 2, 3, 5, 8, 15-17, 19, 20, 25, 30; Leviticus ~



v. i.i ~ i 9. ..~ ,

I Kings vi, 21, 22, 30, 32, 35; I1 Chronicles iii, 5-10. I Kings vi, 20. I Kings vi, 28; II Chronicles iii, 7, 10. I Kings vii, 49; I Chronicles xxviii, 15; I1 Chronicles iv, 7, 20.

(145) I Kings vii, 48, 49; I1 Kings xii, 14 (xii, 13); xxv, 15; I Chronicles xxviii, 14, 16; II Chronicles iv, 8, 21, 22; nxiv, 14; Jeremiah lii, 19; Daniel v, 2, 3; Ezra v, 14;



I Chronicles xix, 6; xxi, 22,24; xxii, 14; 11Chronicles

i, 17; xxv, 6, 24; xxvii, 5; xxxiv, 9, 14; xxxvi, 3. (175) Numbers x, 2. (176) Isaiah xl, 19. (177) Genesis xxiv. 53; xliv. 2; Exodus iii, 22; xii, 35; Numbers vii, 13, 19, 25, 31, 37, 43, 49, 55, 61, 67, 73, 79, 84, 85; II Samuel vm, 10; I Klngs x, 25; Ezra i, 6, 9-11; I Chronicles xxviii, 17; II Chronicles ix, 24; xxiv, 14. (178) I Chronicles axviii, 15. (179) Ezekiel xvi. 13. 17. (180) Zechariah vi, 11. (181) Song of Songs i. 11 (Song of Solomon i, 11). (182) Song of Songs iii, 10 (Song of Solomon iii, 10). (183) Song of Songs viii, 9 (Song of Solomon viii, 9). (184) Esther i, 6. (185) I Chronicles xxviii, 16. (186) Exodus xx. 20 (xx, 23); Deuteronomy xxix. 16 (xxix, 17); Isaiah ii, 20; x u , 22; xxxi, 7; Jeremiah x, 4; Hosea viii. 4; xiii, 2; Habakuk ii, 19; Psalms cxv, 4; cxaav, 1s. (187) Exodus xxv, 3; xxxi, 4; xxxv, 5, 24, 32: xxxviii, 25. (188) Exodus xxvi, 19, 21, 25, 32; xxxvi, 24, 36; xxxviii, 27. (189) Exodus xxvii, 10, 11, 17; xxxviii, 1&12,17. (190) Exodus xxxviii. 17, 19. (191) I Kings x. 21; I1 Chronicles ix. 20. (192) Daniel v. 2; xi. 8 ; Ezra v. 14; vi. 5. (193) Genesis xiii, 2; xxiv. 35; xliv, 8; Numbers xxii. 18; xxiv. 13; Deuteronomy vii, 25; viii, 13; xvii, 17; Joshua xxii, 8 ; II Samuel xxi. 4; I Kings xx. 3.5. 7; II Kings vii, 8 ; xvi, 8 ; xx. 13; xxv, 15; Isaiahii. 20; xiii. 17; xxxix. 2; xlvi, 6; Jeremiah lii, 19; Ezekiel vii. 19; axviii, 4; Hosea ii, 10 (ii, 8); Nahum ii, 10 (ii, 8); Zephaniah i, 11, 18: Haggai ii, 8 ; Zechariah ix, 3; riv, 14; Psalms exix, 72; Proverbs iii, 14; viii, 10; 19; xvi, 16; Job iii, 15; xxii, 25; xxvii, 16, 17; xxviii, 15; Ecclesiastes ii, 8 ; v, 9 (v. 10); vii. 12; Daniel xi, 38. 43; Ezra i, 4; vii, 15, 16, 18; I Chronicles xviii, 11; II Chronicles xvi, 2.3; xvii, 11; xxi, 3; xxiv, 11, 14; xxxii, 27. (194) Jeremiah x, 9; Ezekiel xavii, 12; I1 Chronicles ix, 21; I K i n p x, 22; Isaiah Ix, 9. (195) Ezekml 1, 4, 27; viii, 2. (196) "Amber," UJE, Vol. 1. p. 222; COOK&,"A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Ezekiel," ICC, 1937. p. 10; L o m o u s ~Ezekiel, , "The Century Bible," London. 1913. p. 55. (197) B E R T H G L ~"Archeologie , et Historie des Sciences," Gauthier-Villas. Paris, 1906. p. 46. (198) K A ~ M Aop. N ,cit.. p. 230. (199) Genesis iv, 22. (200) "Mines, Mining!: HDB, Vol. 3, P. 375. (201) Deuteronomy vm, 9. (202) Deuteronomy iii. 11. (203) BERTROLLET,Op, it., p. 23; DRIVER,op. cd., pp. 51, 109. (204) Ezekiel xxvii, 12. (205) Ezekiel xxvii. 12, 19. (206) Numbers xxxi. 22; Joshua xxii, 8. (207) Jeremiah xvii, 1; Job xia, 24. (208) Deuteronomy xix. 5; I! Samuel xii, 31; I Kings vi, 7; I1 Kings vl, 5, 6; Isaiah xliv, 12. (209) I Samuel xvii, 7; I Chronicles xx, 3. (210) I1 Samuel xii, 31; Amos i, 3. (211) II Samuel raiii, 7; I Kings xxii, 11; Micah iv, 13; Job xx, 24. (212) I Chronicles xxii, 3. (213) Joshua vi. 19, 24; Ezekiel iv, 3. (214) Jerem~ahxxviii, 13; Psalms ii. 9. (215) Joshua xvii, 18; Judges iv, 3, 13. (216) Psalms cv, 18; cvii, 10. (217) Deuteronomy xxviii, 48; Jeremiah xxviii, 14. (218) Leviticus xxvi, 19; Numbers xxxi, 2223. (219) Isaiah xlv, 2; Jeremiah i. 18; Job xl, 18; xli, 19 (xli, 27); Psalms cvii, 16; Daniel ii. 40. (220) Isaiah xlviii, 4; Jeremiah vi, 28. (221) Deuteronomy xxvii, 5; I Kings vi. 7. (222) Ezekiel xxii, 18, 20. (223) Jeremiah vi, 29. (224) Numbers xxxi, 22. (225) Ezekiel xxvii. 12. (226) Job xix, 24. (227) "Lead," TDB, p. 383; "Lead..' HDB, Vol. 3, p. 88. (228) Exodus av, 10. (229) Isaiah i, 25; Ezekiel xxii, 18, 20.

"Metals," JE, Vol. 8, p. 514. Ezra vi. 9; vii, 22. Il Samuel viii, 13; 11Kings xi", 7; I Chronicles wiii. 12; n Chronicles xxv, 11. B r a ii, 59; B A ~ O N"A, Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Bwks of Ezra and Nehemia," ICC. 1913.0. 92. ~ o s h u a & ,62. Ezekiel. xlvii. Ezekiel xlvii, 11; B E R ~ L E T09. , cd., p. 23. Leviticus ii. 13; Ezekiel xliii, 24. Job vi, 6; Ezra iv. 14. Leviticus ii, 13; Numbers xviii, 19. G n ~ z o v s n ~"Dictionary , of the Hebrew Language." Dvir Co., Ltd., Tel-Aviv, Paleitine, 1934, p. 536. II Kings ii, 20, 21. Ezekiel xvi. 4: COOKE.04. tit.. D. 162. BERTHOLL~T, bp. it.. 6. i60. Deuteronomy xxix, 22 (xxix, 23) ; Judges ix, 45; Jeremiah xvii, 6; Psalms cvii, 34; Job xxxix, 6; Zephaniah ii, 9. "Salt," HDB, Vol. 4, p. 355. ''Salt.; EB, Vol. 4, p. 4249. Jeremiah xvii. 6; Psalms cvii. 34; Job xxxix. 6. op. cd., p. 23. BERTHOLLET, Jeremiah ii, 22. Jeremiah ii. 22; Malachi iii. 2. Isaiah i. 25; Job ix, 30. dp. cd., p. 45. BERTHELOT, Ibid., p. 45; ROSCOEAND SCEORLE-R, op. cit., Vol. 2, pp. 101, 253; PARTINGTON, op. cd., p. 498. "Nitre, EB. Vol. 3, p. 3425; PEAK&.Jeremiah and Lamentations, "The Century Bible," London, 1913. Vol. 1, p. 95. Proverbs xxv, 20; KOPP,op. cit., Vol. 4, p. 23. "Lye," EB, Vol. 3, p. 2840; DRIVERAND GRAY,"A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Job," ICC, 1921. Vol. 1, p. 95. op. At.. p. 117. GRAZOVSKY, II Kings xviii, 17; Isaiah vii, 3; BERTHOLLET, op. cit., p. 217. Job xxviii, 17. Deuteronomy xxxiii. 19. DRIVER, "A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on Deuteronomy," ICC, 1902. p. 409. TACITUS, "The History, Germanica and Agricola," Everyman's Library, Dent and Sons. Ltd., London, 1932. Vol. 2,p. 291. (Book5.p. 7.) I Kings vi, 4; vii, 4; Ezekiel xl, 16. 22, 25. 29, 33. 36; d i , 16, 26. 11Kings ix, 30; Jeremiah xxii, 14. 09. tit.. V d . 2, p. 100; KOPP, ROSCOE AND SCRORLEMMER, op. cit., Vol. 4, p. 352. TOY,"A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the B w k of Proverbs," ICC, 1899, p. 216. Numbers vi, 3; "Vinegar." TDB, p. 878. "Vinegar," JE, Vol. 12, p. 439. HOEPER,op. cit., p. 41; KnmtdAN, 09. cit., p. 263. Proverbs xxv. 20. Numbers vi, 3. Ruth ii, 14. Psalms Ixia. 22 (lxix, 21). Proverbs x, 26. Genesis xxnvii, 3. I1 Samuel xiii, 18, 19. Judges v, 30; II Samuel i, 24. Job axxviii, 14; D R m n AND GRAY,op. cd., Vol. 1, p. 330. "Jews in Dye Industry,'' UJE, Vol. 3, p. 615. Ezekiel xxiii, 15. Exodus xxv, 4 ; xxvi, 1, 31, 36; xxviii, 5, 6, 8, 15, 33; xxxv, 6.23, 25. 35; xxxvi. 8.35.37; xxxviii, 18; m i x , 1.. 3.. 5. 24. 29. ~, -DIN, op. c&., P. 134. Exodus xxvi, 4; xxviii. 5.31; m i x , 8 ; Numbers iv, 9. 11. I1 Cbronicles ii. 6. 13 (ii, 7, 14) ; iii, 14. Numbers xv. 38; Esther i, 6; viii. 15. "Dveine." HDB. Vol. 1.. D. . 632. ~zikiel-ixvii,8.24. Exodus m i x , 2 ; Numbers iv, 13. I1 Chronicles ii, 6, 13 (ii, 7, 14); iii, 14. Judges viii, 26; Jeremiah x, 9; Ezekiel xxvii, 7, 16; Proverbs xxxi, 22; Esther i, 6; viii, 15; Daniel v, 7, 16, 29; Song of Songs iii, 10 (Song of Solomon iii. 10).


(291) Song of Songs vii, 6 (Song of Solomon vii, 5). (292) COOKE,op.