Theory and Structure of Complex Compounds
Edited by B. Jeiowska-Ttzebialowska, University of Wroclaw, Poland. Papers presented a t the Symposium in Wroclaw, June 15-19, 1962. Macmillan Co. ( a Pergamon Press hook), 707 pp. Figs. New York, 1964. xii and tables. 18 X 25 cm. $17.50.
The contents of this book are the papers presented a t the Symposium held in Wroclew, Poland in June of 1962. I t contains 87 papers, ranging from 4 to 42 pages in length with most of them being about 6 pages. The range of topics covered is very wide. Most of the papers are printed in English with a few in German, French, or Russian. ks is the case in any symposium volume of such wide scope, it is impossible to review the individual articles. A rather incomplete list of the topics considered includes papers on X-ray and spectroscopic structure determination, a. few papers an kinetics and mechanisms, some on the determination of stability constants and stioehiometry in complex formation, and a large number of papers on specific systems which combine a number of techniques in the analysis. A volume of this type is interesting and obvioualy contains some information that is of value to almost everyone. I t is, however, rather difficult to evaluate as a general reference and will he of use mainly for a general scanning of the papers to find those of special interest and s detailed reading of those few. DONALD A. TARE College of Wooster Wooster, Ohio
Chemistry: A Physical Approach
William F . Sheehan, TJniversity of Santa Clara, Smta Clam, California. Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston, 1964. 601 pp. Figs. and tables. 17 X xi 23.5 cm. 58.75.
In recent years there have been aeverd effortsto escape tradition in writing books for introductory chemistry courses, especially those courses offered for science and engineering majors or for honor sections. Although this hook surely represents one of the most drastic depmtures from tradition, it may well turn out to be one of the best! Everyone teaching freshman chemistry should read this hook, but not every class will be able to use it. According to Professor Sheehan his aim is to "explain vividly what modern chemistry is all about" by choosing subjects important to and within the comprehension of lower division students. He describes his hook as a "textbook of theoretical chemistry with some organic chemistry stirred in. There is a modest but real reliance on high school chemistry and physics." Purely descriptive chemistry has been kept to a minimum since the goal has been to "offer the student the means of learning his own chemieel facts a t the time he needs them." The eleven chapters include: (1)
Journal of Chemical Education
Atomic Structure-a. more than casual disoussion of elementary particles, radistion, the Bohr stam, the uncertainty principle, the exclusion principle, isotopes, the Aufbau principle, and the periodic table. (2) Moleeulttr Structure-a nonmathematical discussion of covalent bonds, the hydrogen molecule ion, electron pair bonds (molecular orbitals and valence bond approaches), electron diffraction, molecular energies, molecular structure from rotational spectra, bond lengths, multiple bonds, shapes of molecules and ions, and acids and bases. (3) Compounds of Carhon--structnres and reactions of carbon and its oxides, inorganic compounds, alkmes, alkenes and alkynes, eycloslkmes, aromatic hydrocarbons, functional groups, proteins and foods, along with discussions of proofs of structure, tautomers, and optical activity. (4) Kinetic Theory and Statistics; (5) Ideal Structures of Crystals; (6) Real Structures of Solids; (71 Liquids and Solutions; (8) Chemical Energies; (9) Rates of Reaction; (10) Chemical Equilibrium; and (11) Industrial Processos. Chapters 4-10 include, for example, equations of state, the Boltmnann distribution, quantum statistics, Bravais lattices, X-ray powder diffraction, hand theory, semiconductors, surface energy, phase diagranm, osmosis, dilute solutions of electrolytes, lattice energies, chemical potential, fuel cells, radioactive decay, nucleophilic substitutions, enzymatic reactions, derivation of the phase rule, hydrol--is, buffers and pH, and heterogeneous equilibrium. Chapter 11, a most interesting write-up of Industrial Processes, includes sections on The Economic Scene, Sulfuric Acid, Chlorine, Sodium Carbonate, Hard Water, Ammonia, Chemical Explosives, Metallurgy, Processes Using Ethene, Phenol and Aspirin, Industrial Safety, Financing Chemical Research, and The Chemistry Ahead. It is hard to find a topic traditionally covered in the junior physical chemistry course that is not mentioned here, nlthough the direct use of calculus has been avoided. Thus, Schriidinger's name is only mentioned (p. 48) and the equation is not given. Neither Schr8dinger nor Heisenberg are listed in the index akhough one does h d Bose-Einstein statistiw, Dehye-Hiickel theory, Gibbs free energy, the Hskala relation, the Kossel plot, LeunardJones potential, Madelung conatants, the Ne6l point, the Paschen-Back effect, Rayleigh's Law, the Schottky defect, Trtmmsnn-Wagner law of oxidation, Vegmd's law, etc. For most freshman and sophomore students, however, and for a significant number of graduate ttudent instructors, one predicts that s, cansiderahle amount of additional explanatory material (paperbacks, articles in the Journal of Chaical Education, Seienlih American, etc.) will be needed with this textbook. A more complete physical chemistry text (e.g., one of the frequently cited footnotes) will also he useful. Trerv
Anyone who uses this hook will agree that Professor Sheehan's "main purpose. . . to help the chemistry professor educate his students" has been achieved and, concurrently the plofessor himself will probably learn something about the "acquisition, understanding, proper ordering and effective use of facts." It will remain far the laboratory class and for later courses in organic and inorganic chemistry to provide most of the facts which relate to the experimental, and especially to the descriptive side of chemistry.
JOHN L. MARGRAVE Rim University
Houston, Tcxas Nuclei and Radioactivity
Gregory R. Choppin, Florida State University, Tallahassee. W. A. Benjamin, Inc., New York, 1964. ix 150 pp. Figs. and tables. 14.5 X 22 cm. Clothhound, $4.95; paperbound, $1.95.
This volume is one of a projected total of approximately fifteen in the Benjamin General Chemistry Monograph Series edited by Russell Johnsen of Florida State University. The series is described in the editor's foreword as a. response to a challenge to the general chemistry teacher posed by recent and continuing growth in the breadth and complexity of the suhject matter of general chemistry and by improvements in the high school preparation of the general chemistry student. Since the subjects of radioactivity and nuclear structure are included in virtuallv all modem wnerd chemistrv
comprehensively, more interestingly, and m a n authoritatively than rvvddde textbook material. Examination of a dosen or so recent textbooks indicates that Professor Choppin has succeeded in each of these respects. This monograph will he richly rewarding to the ambitious freshman whose curiosity and need far understanding compel him to go beyond the usual textbook presentation of topics variously labeled as "radiortctivity," "nuclear chemistry," 'hdioehemistry," or, simply, "ra.di.diation." The first chapter presents s. qualitative description of the nucleus in the context of a. discussion of nuelem sise and mass, mass-energy relations, and the nature of nuclear and coulambic forre-. Thr second rwnpriica a ronrise dewiprion of the churactrr of thc mnjor drvav ~ l l ~ d e s ~~fnthe d kinciicsoiradiox tive decay, and also paves the way for subsequent discussion of nuclear models in brief sections concerning stability, abundance, and neutron-proton ratio and nucleon pairing. Chapter 4 returns to the subject of nucleon interactions and stability and is devoted to a commendably thorough discussion of fission. The sixth chapter completes consideration of structure and nuclear properties with a discussion of nuclear models. decav lwme', and nurl~nrr r w t i ~ m . 'hat, r i mniuinr, t 1 . r v~ h a p t r n ded w i t h drwtUm i o n r a d i i iwrlrrators, nnd applications of radioisotopes.