Current Industrial News - Industrial & Engineering Chemistry (ACS

Ind. Eng. Chem. , 1917, 9 (7), pp 712–715. DOI: 10.1021/ie50091a039. Publication Date: July 1917. Note: In lieu of an abstract, this is the article'...
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and automatically cutting the gelatine into sheets of the desired size and spreading i t automatically upon the usual screens employed for receiving it preparatory t o drying. This machine was perfected and was found to accomplish the desired purposes in the manufacture of gelatine. A number of glue makers learned of the use of this machine for gelatine, and about five years ago the first of these machines was installed for glue. It has been found well suited for this purpose, and capable of chilling, cutting and spreading any kind of glue which could be handled by the older methods previously outlined. As a






a result, a large number of both large and small glue manufacturers have adopted this machine. The manufacturers of this machine advise that it requires a floor space of about 8j ft. i n length and I O ft. in width for the installation of a single machine; that the power required to operate fan and belts is


Vol. 9, No. 7

about IO horse-power; that it requires about IO t o 12 tons of refrigeration per machine, and that the capacity of each machine is about 4300 lbs. dry glue in a period of 20 hours, based on spreading the glue 1/4 in. thick, and on a basis of glue fed to the machine containing 16 per cent solids. It is found in practice that the glue is spread on nets ready for drying, in not to exceed 15 minutes from the time the glue leaves the evaporator. Their claims for the machine are that it eliminates all of the disadvantages ascribed previously in this paper t o the old methods of handling. DRYING


Glue has been and is still ordinarily dried in straight tunnels with longitudinal circulation of warm air. There is a great difference of opinion among different operators as to the best length of glue tunnels, the size and kind of fan, the method of temperature regulation to be employed, whether a suction system or positive pressure system should be used, etc., etc., but it is not the purpose of the writer to enter into a discussion of these points. A number of other methods of drying glue have been attempted and some are being employed. Vacuum driers of one type or another have frequently been tried, but in most instances without meeting with commercial success. One company builds a drier with rotary air circulation, passing alternately over the coils and glue nets, which they recommend for glue drying. I n conclusion, the writer wishes to express his thanlcs t o Mr. F. S. Williams; also t o Mr. L. A. Kind for information relative to the Kind machine. FIRSTNATIONAL BANK BUILDING CHICAQO,ILL.



Statistics recently published by the Russian authorities, says Mining Journal, 116 (1g17),149,shows that larger imports than ever of copper were necessitated by war demand. The supplies were got chiefly from the United States which contributed 11,728 tons and from Japan which supplied 8,517 tons. The figures for home production are not yet published.

The annual report (1915) of the mining engineer for the South African Government, states that the only mines on which there are considerable reserves of blue asbestos actually developed and in sight, are those of the Cape Asbestos Company a t Koegas and Westerberg. These mines have been developed underground on normal lines as also are the workings a t Haauwpoort and Elandsfontein in the Hay district. At other places the asbestos is obtained from surface quarrying, but the seams that have been discovered and worked a t the surface to more or less profit indicate supplies that will generally prove t o be available for profitable extraction by underground methods later. The following analyses show the difference between blue asbestos (crocidolite) and chrysotile or white asbestos:

RUSSIANIMPORTS I N METRICTONS 1914 1915 2,316 Aluminum. 863 2,325 Antimony.. ............... 1,343 10,778 Copper .................... 4,576 1,787,041 Iron and Steel.. ........... 2,236,345 25,059 Lead. 36,69 1 1,146 Nickel.. 1,793 4,906 Tin.. 3,570 14,137 Zinc 14,328


..................... .................. ..................... ......................

1916 149 3,636 23,548 1,752,660 23,128 1,541 2,424 11,840

Aluminum was only available in comparatively small amounts. Large supplies of antimony were available from Japan, and this metal shows a steady increase. As regards iron and steel, the imports are naturally small, Russia depending largely on her own domestic supplies.-A: MACMILLAN.

PLUMBAGO IN MYSORE According t o a Press message from Madras, an important discovery of plumbago is stated t o have been recently made in Mysore by a n expert prospector who is well known in the state. Graphite has been found in Bangalore before now but only in such small quantities as not to be paying. The present discovery appears t o be a fairly rich deposit with the additional advantage that it is within three miles of the railway. Plumbago has been found in Travancore and Mysore previously, but the quality was not up t o the standard of the Ceylon and Madagascar product, which is what the market requires. Whether the present kind is of better quality is not yet known.-M.

PERCENTAGES BLUE ASB8STOS Silica 51.1 Oxide of Iron.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 . 8 Magnesia.. ...................... 2.3 Alumina ............................ W a t e r . . . . . ..................... 3.9


wI$ITE ASBESTOS 39.3 2.8 41 .O 3.6 14.5

The blue variety contains also traces of lime and manganese oxide and a little soda. The presence of the large quantity of iron and the low content of water must account for whatever virtues and also faults the blue variety contains. There does not seem to be much question of the properties of white asbestos as a heat-resisting material, some varieties having been known to withstand a temperature of 5 , 0 0 0 ~F. without being affected. I n addition, there can be no doubt as to its superior softness which enables it to be easily milled and reduced, and makes it specially useful for gland packing. On the other hand, blue asbestos has certain qualities peculiarly its own. The fiber, in addition to being lighter, is longer, stronger and more elastic, and its superior efficiency as. an insulating material as regards heat, appears to be well known.-M.

July, 1917



GAS ANALYSIS BY ALPHA-RAYS COATING FOR TOOLS BEFORE HARDENING It is known that the highest conductivity in gases can be proWe have recently received, says the Engineer, 123 (1917), duced by exposing them t o a-rays which ionize the gas. These 298, from the Brooke Tool Manufacturing Company, Bir- rays, says Engineering, 103 (1917),401, are absorbed by the KLEENSURFACE-A

mingham, England, some particulars of a compound t o which the name “Kleensurface” has been given. This substance is for coating tools before hardening, so as t o eliminate the waste of time and energy consumed in sand-blasting and t o overcome the difficulties and risks due t o oxidation of steel requiring a high temperature for hardening which may cause pitted and blistered surfaces on parts that cannot afterwards be ground. It is said to have no action whatever on the metal, being a protective agent only, and we gather that it preserves the smooth and bright finish which the cutter or tool has before hardening, thus preventing loss of size due t o scaling whether the hardening be carried out in up-to-date appliances or in the open fire, while a t the same time the need for sand-blasting is done away with. The method of using the substance is simple. The tool to be treated is first of all heated t o visible red, and is then held in the compound for about ten seconds, withdrawn and then again plunged into the compound. It is then dried in the air. All that is now necessary is t o heat the tool to the required hardening temperature and t o quench it in the usual way. During quenching or air hardening, the protective film will, for the most part, peel off, and what remains can be easily removed, leaving, i t is claimed, a clean white surface. The compound is also said to be very effective for annealing highspeed steel.-M.

gas, and if the absorption be complete, the ionization and the resulting saturation current are little affected by the nature of the gas. When the tube containing the gas is so long, however, that saturation is just secured by a heavy gas, the current would not be saturated if the gas were replaced by another less dense gas. On this peculiarity, Professor F. Kriiger, of Danzig, has based a new method of determining the proportion of two gases in a mixture, often a troublesome problem. The method is a current measurement, and, as the currents are very weak, of the order IO-^ ampere, very high resistances are required. At the winter meeting of the Bunsen Gesellschaft, Kriiger explained how he produced high resistances for the purpose. He volatilizes platinum cathodes by the electric discharge and condenses the platinum vapor on little rods of amber. In this way, he has prepared a series of film resistances, ranging from 5 X IO up t o 3 X 1 0 1 3 ohm. The analytical method is said to be expeditious and reliable within 0 ,I per cent or less.-M.


According t o a paper published in the Bulletin des usines de guerre, the change in volume produced by hardening (quenching) steel is small if the hardening temperature is kept below a certain limit. Hardening in oil gives less variation in volume than GERMANY’S PRODUCTION OF IRON hardening in water. Special metals, such as nickel-steel, At a recent meeting of the Union of German Iron and Steel show less diminution in volume than the carbon steels. Eutectic Industries, some interesting information was given on the steels “crack” more frequently than carbon-steels, which latter German production of iron during the war. The production undergo considerable changes in volume. Finally, from experiof pig-iron in Germany during 1916 was about 13,000,000tons ments carried out, in flat pieces the tension is distributed unitons in 1915and 14,380,000tons in 1914. formly in every direction, while in cylindrically shaped pieces as against 11,7go,ooo As regards this latter year, it should be borne in mind that, the ends contract and become hollow, the piece bellying out.-M. while the production for the first seven months was exceptionally high, it was the reverse for the last five months of the year, and BRITISH SUGAR BEET GROWING the figure for 1914does not afford any reliable basis for comAn enterprise, estimated to cost $2,500,000, for the producparison. The following table shows Germany’s production of pig-iron for the last ten years from which it will be seen that tion of home-grown sugar, has now been initiated. A grant of the industry has receded considerably from the preceding peace $625,000 has been made by the Treasury by way of loan from the Development Fund towards the purchase of a n estate of figures, in spite of strenuous efforts. Year Tons Year Tons 5,600 acres at Kelham, England, where it is proposed t o grow 1912.. . . . . . . 17,870,000 1907. ........ 13,040,000 the sugar-beet and to erect a factory for its manufacture into 1913 ........ 19,290,000 1908.. . . . . . . . 11,810,000 1914.. . . . . . . 14,380,000 1909. ........ 12,920,000 sugar. 1915. . . . . . . . 11,790,000 1910.. . . . . . . . 14,790,000 19 16. . . . . . . . 13,000,000 1911.. . . . . . . . 15,530.000 The undertaking is to be carried out by the British -M . Sugar Beet Growers’ Society, Ltd., of which Captain Beville Stainer is Chairman. The property has already been ZEPPELIN ENGINE acquired and Mr. Alfred Wood, who is in charge of the homeA six-cylinder, 160 horse-power Benz engine used for enemy grown flax, hemp and tobacco undertaking in England is the aircraft purposes has cylinders 130 mm. diameter and 180 mm. Secretary.-M. stroke. The cylinders are all cast separately and the weight of the engine complete comes out a t 3.70 lbs. per brake horse OIL SHORTAGE IN DENMAFtK power a t the normal speed of 1550 r. p. m. These particulars have been obtained by the British Naval and Military authoriAccording t o the Extrabladef, the oil mill a t Aarhus, which supplies all the great margarine factories in Denmark with oil, ties from an engine taken from a captured Zeppelin.-M. is threatened with having t o close unless supplies of copra arrive FUEL FROM PEAT in the near future, as the factories have only very small stocks A Christiania paper reports the formation of a company in in hand. It is feared that margarine will soon be unobtainable Norway for making fuel from peat by the Rosendahl method. in Denmark. The National Tidende anticipates that the entry The raw material for the new industry will be chiefly peat from of the United States into the war will cause further difficulties the extensive Norwegian moors, but any other material may be in connection with Denmark’s already extremely limited supplies used which is sufficiently abundant in the neighborhood of the of oil. The journal even regards a complete stoppage of supplies factory, e. g., wood waste. The product is said greatly t o re- as not a t all unlikely and expects that the controlling authorisemble English coal. Preliminary experiments have been ties will enforce considerable restrictions on consumptions. All conducted not only in the laboratory, but also under factory con- electric power stations using oil are expected t o close down and ditions on a small scale, and the product is stated to have been the use of petroleum for lighting purposes will probably be Eatisfactorily tested in Christiania households.-M. prohibited.-M.



Vol. 9, No. 7



According to a Bulletin of the Siberian Engineers’ Society on the platinum fields of the Nizhni-Tagilsk Mining Circuit, the mining engineer, V. N. Tchorzhevsky, has begun the first experiments in the world on the extraction of platinum from dunite. The experiment promises t b be extremely interesting. The platiniferous nature of dunite has long ago been observed and the presence of the metal is apparently connected with the existence of chrome iron ore in the rock, on the abundance of which the greater or lesser content of platinum in the whole dunite mass depends. All this was known before, but was rather of scientific interest and it is only now that the investigation of the dunites for platinum on a wide scale is being undertaken, in order t o prepare a plan for utilizing the immense reserves of dunitic rocks which in the Nizhni-Tagil district alone occupy an area of I I .7 sq. mi. The method of extraction adopted is the simple grinding under runners of the rock and the collection of the chromite slack, and then a fresh grinding of the latter in order t o leach the pure metal finally from it. The chromite slack remaining after washing, the platinum sands being scrupulously cleared of all visible platinum, yielded with an experimental grinding by runners in the month of March, when it was impossible t o deliver dunites t o the factory, over zoo oz. of metal out of 9,720 lbs. The gray slack, which consists chiefly of undecomposed dunite obtained from the , dredges when washing platinum, yielded 171 grains (Troy) of metal from 3,600 1bs.-M.

A French Ministerial Decree dated March 19 abrogates the provisions of various earlier decrees by virtue of which the following articles were allowed t o be exported or re-exported from France without special authorization when consigned to the United Kingdom, British Dominions, colonies and protectorates, Belgium (territory not in enemy occupation), Japan, Russia and the countries of America:

INDUSTRY IN CANADA Last year a postal census was taken in Canada of all manufacturing concerns and constructive operations. The results of this investigation, classified under certain large groups of industries, are shown in the following table. The returns cover the year 1915: Groups of Establishc o s t of Industries ments Capital Material Food.. . . . .. 6,470 $198,246,942 $29 1,997,953 2,670 126,488,339 81,427,279 Textiles.. . . . . 849 194,278,446 58,924,280 Iron . . . . . . . . . . . 3,181 263,407,682 59,1‘0,149 Timber.. .. 523 60,081,498 45,175,517 Leather . 38,544,786 29,324,906 6 Paper . . . 1,306 10,129,252 7 Liquors.. .. 52,283,857 341 52,148,588 24,930,308 255 8 Chemicals.. ... . 96,371,573 10,962,041 , , .. . . . . 771 9 Clay.. 174,62 1,994 45,931,080 10 Metals , ... . 1,173 23,066,898 16,017,707 11 Tobacco . . 166 40,547,113 125,965.499 12 Vehicles.. . . . . . . 464 12,331,341 13 Vessels ........ . . . . 103 3,035,857 441,118,405 56,323,786 14 Miscellaneous.. . . . 1,440 26,135,559 17,627,192 15 Handtrades.. . . . . . 1,579 1 2 3 4 5


$3 7 7,8 11,758 ... . . 144,69 1,235 119,636,755 123,250,986 . . . . 0,975,644 .... . . . . . . 74,038,498 ....... . . . 34,859,927 .... . . . 45,410,486 27,228,413 ........ .. . . . . 90,943,278 28,987,250 ......... 73,878,212 .. . 8,419,648 134,255,029 . 38,129,834 . TOTAL. . .. . . . . , . . 2 1,291 $1,984,99 1,427.$79 1,524,420 $1,392,5 16,953 cent increase over

Per 1905_.............. 34.8




The total salary and wage lists, respectively, in the 15 groups of industries shown amounted t o $60,144,000 and $227,509,000 as compared with $30,7q,ooo and $134,376,000 in 1905. The only industries which have not shared in the substantial growth are sawmills, planing mills, brickyards, etc., and fruit and vegetable canneries.-Mil. ~

PURIFICATION OF ASBESTOS A writer in a German paper says that commercial asbestos contaminated with iron compounds may be purified by treatment with a 2 per cent aqueous solution of oxalic acid for 48 hours, followed by washing with water. A band of asbestos 20 mm. wide showed a t fourteen different places an electrical resistance of 600 t o 700 ohms; after treatment as described, the resistance increased t o 1g0,ooo ohms. An alternative method consists in treating the asbestos for 20 t o 24 hours in a current of hydrogen or carbon monoxide a t 390 t o 400’ C. and then washing with very dilute hydrochloric or sulfuric acid and afterwards with water.--M.

Acetone Cadmium in all forms Carbide of calcium Cement Cinchona bark Copper,inore Cobalt all forms or metal, pure or alloved. in all forms D e x k n e and soluble starches F a t t y acids of all kinds Fats, animal(tal1ow lard margarine oleomargarine akd similar sub: stances) Fats, fish, vegetable, alimentary

Mica and micanite. worked Monazite (ore of cerium, lanthanum, thorium) Nickel, metal, pure or alloyed, in all forms Ores titanium, of manganese vanadium molybdenum, Radium and its salts Saccharine and similar products Salts of chromium, copper, tin, mercury and

%%pricks Y‘l‘CYY


Whale oil


BRITISH BOARD OF TRADE During the month of April the British Board of Trade received inquiries from firms in the United Kingdom and abroad regarding sources of supply for the following articles. Firms which may be able t o supply information regarding these things are requested to communicate with the Director of the Commercial Intenigence Branch, Board of Trade, 73 Basinghall St., London, E. C.: CHEMICALS: Ammon’m sulfocyanide Dinitrophenol Dichlornitrobenzol Potassium permanganate Silicate of sodium Sodium permanganate MACHINERY: for combining thin sheets of tortoise shell to form thick sheets for cutting out and sewing fabric gloves for filling quilts by air pressure for making drawing pins for cementing or jointing tortoise shell for-making paper spills for crushing and refining oilseeds for electrolytic production of oxygen and hydrogen Flint glazing machines for pasteboards similar to “Grahl & Hoehl” machine Wire-stitching machines for box


.- - - - . - .-

grinding mills

Anglite frames for ladies’ handbags Brushes: tooth, hair, clothes, for Egypt Buttons, all kinds Cast-iron lavatories Dog-collars, metal F a t t y acids cotton and corn oil Fittings for manicure cases, in bone and ebony (cheap) Folding market bags, American cloth Log-wood, black lake Marine chronometers (2-day) chains and escape wheels, etc. Micrometers with 3 ,verniers Moorsom’s measuring apparatus for ships Poker-work needles, platinum points Shaving-soap, containing less than 1% of glycerine Split rings, steel or iron Swivel hooks, iron Thimbles Varnish, black, for coating beer vats internally Zinc oxide (40 tons)



PHOSPHOR BRONZE The characteristics of phosphor bronze in different forms are described in a publication by the Phosphor Bronze Company. Among other points, attention is drawn to the resistance it offers to corrosion and acid waters, to the small effect that rise of temperature has upon its mechanical properties, and to the fact that it does not yield a spark when struck. On this last account, tools and implements used in gunpowder mills, magazines and mines are advantageously made of it. In addition to being cast, it can be forged, drawn into rods, wire and tubes, and rolled into sheets, strips, tape and bars. When cold rolled or drawn, since its elasticity is absolute practically up to breaking stress, the metal can be exposed t o strains only a few tons below the breaking weight without permanent set or deformation. The pamphlet also gives particulars of various other alloyssuch as phosphor tin and copper, anti-friction metals of various kinds, and printing and stereotype alloys.-M.

J u l y , 1917


THE MANUFACTURE OF IODINE Reports from Quimper (France), says the Oil and Color Trade Journal, 51 (1917), 1469, speak of a new process for the manufacture of iodine and its derivatives. Iodine, of which the Department of Finistere is a great producer, was hitherto extracted from the soda produced by the incineration of certain kinds of marine algae. This method of operation, which necessitated the algae being first of all transformed, rendered the yield very poor and lacking in uniformity, as the incineration employed was very rudimentary. Mons. Vincent, Director of the Laboratory of Finistere, who has been studying the question for some time, has now discovered a process enabling iodine to be extracted by a direct treatment of such algae or seaweed. This process has been patented and is in use in the works a t St. Pierre-Penmark and has given excellent results. A joint stock company has been formed for working the patent and utilizing the byproducts.-M. WOOD IN GAS-MAKING I n reference t o the use of resinous wood for the production of gas, which has been adopted on a more or less extensive scale in several continental countries, a correspondent of the Journal des Lisines d Gaz records his experience in the distillation of fir and oak in the Romorantin Gasworks. The wood, he writes, was distilled, unmixed with coal, in retorts of dimensions approximately I O f t . X 2 5 in. X 14 in. in quantity to yield from I O t o 20 per cent of the make of gas from coal. Each charge was about IOO kilos of fir or 1 2 0 kilos of oak and it yielded about 2 5 cu. m. (900 cu. ft.) of gas. In working a bench of retorts, it was found necessary t o adopt alternate days for the distillation of the wood. Continuous use of the same retorts for wood gave rise t o stoppages in the ascension-pipes in the shape of a viscous grayish deposit, very troublesome t o remove. The following figures were obtained for the cost of using the two woods: Fir,



price per ton, 40 frcs.; labor, 4 frcs.; furnace coke (zoo kilos), 1 7 . 5 0 frcs.; total, 61 .so frcs.; deducting 50 frcs. for sale of charcoal, the net cost is 11.50 frcs. Oak, price per ton, 5 8 . 5 0 frcs.; labor, 4 frcs.; coke, 17 .50 frcs.; allowing for sale of charcoal a t 70 frcs., the net cost is I O frcs. The charcoal sells readily, the weight per hectolitre being 15 kg. in case of fir and 18 kg. for oak.-M. TREATMENT OF TIMBER Excellent results have been obtained with saponified creosote by simply soaking estate timber in an open tank, and the method seems t o deserve a trial if the greater expense of creosoting pit timber under pressure cannot be faced, says the Iron and Coal Trade Review. The idea was first suggested by Mr. S. H. Collins, of Newcastle, England, in July 1914. According t o him, the addition of a small percentage, say 0.25 per cent or less, of caustic soda to pure creosote improves penetration, even in the case of timbers like spruce, which take the oil with difficulty even when comparatively well seasoned. Moreover, saponification makes i t possible t o dilute the creosote with water and thus cheapens the impregnating process.-M. SCARCITY OF SYNTHETIC PERFUMES A number of synthetic perfumes are scarcely obtainable a t the present moment. Among these is phenyl-ethyl alcohol, which is an absolutely necessary ingredient for artificial Otto of roses. It is true, says the Oil and Color Trade Journal, that a certain amount is being offered, but a good deal of this is of indifferent quality, really fine grades being very difficult t o obtain and then only a t much enhanced prices. Amberpene is hardly t o be found, the few makers complaining of lack of raw material. Benzaldehyde, free from chlorine, is exceedingly difficult t o find, but the ordinary quality containing chlorine is offered fairly freely, although the price is very firm.-M.


JULIUS 0. SCHLOTTERBECK Once again the roll is called, and as the name of Julius Otto Schlotterbeck is reached, there comes the mournful yet triumphant response: “Gone forward.” Professor Schlotterbeck was born in ilnn Arbor, Michigan, in 1865, the son of Hermann and Rosina Schlotterbeck. After attending the primary and high schools of Ann Arbor, he entered the pharmacy course a t the University of Michigan in the fall of 1885, graduating from that institution as pharmaceutical chemist in June 1887. He continued his studies a t the University, a t the same time performing the duties of assistant in pharmacy and pharmacognosy, and in June, 1891, he was granted the baccalaureate degree in science. His brilliant career in college won for him, as soon as he graduated, a position on the faculty of the University. I n 1891 he was made instructor in pharmacognosy and botany, which position he retained until 1895, when he became a student of Tschirch a t the University of Berne, where two years later he was awarded the degree of doctor of philosophy (summa cum laude). Returning t o America, he was made assistant professor of pharmacognosy and botany; in 1904 he was junior professor and in 1907 he was promoted to the full professorial position. On the death of Professor Prescott, in 1905, he was chosen Dean of the School of Pharmacy, and he retained that position until his death. Professor Schlotterbeck was a tireless worker. In the publications of the American Pharmaceutical Association we find 18 papers from his pen; while he contributed three papers to the Journal of our own association. Of these, the most brilliant are his reports on his researches on the unusual alkaloids of the

Poppy family, particularly noteworthy being his painstaking investigation of protopine and his discovery in Stylophorum diphyllum of a new papaveraceous alkaloid, stylopine, CIQHIclNOa. It is needless to say that such a man was in demand in association work. I n 1905 he was president of the State Pharmaceutical Association; in 1902 he was chairman of the Scientific Section of the American Pharmaceutical Association, while for two terms, 1910 to 1912, he was president of the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties, after serving that organization for several terms as its secretary. In our own association, he was an active supporter of the division on pharmaceutical chemistry. He was a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a member of the Committee on Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia. In his home life, Dr. Schlotterbeck was singularly happy. -4s one of his friends said recently about him: “He was a home man-the passion of science never built a barrier between him and his fireside.” Deep, therefore, is the loss that has come to his widow and his three children, Prescott, a freshman a t the University of Michigan, Miriam, a high school student, and Carl, a boy of eleven years. To these, our deepest sympathies go forth. The writer will never forget his first meeting with Schlotterbeck. It was a delightful August evening in 189j, in the SchlossGarten a t Heidelberg, where we two, who had frequently heard of each other in America, met as comparatively old friends on foreign soil. He was then on his way to Berne, full of quiet enthusiasm for the work he was about to begin and which he so brilliantly completed two years later. Since that time, our