Dangerous properties of industrial materials (Sax, N. Irving) - Journal


Book and Media Review. Previous Article · Next Article · Table of Contents. Dangerous properties of industrial materials (Sax, N. Irving). Paul W. Tro...
0 downloads 0 Views 2MB Size


book reviews

It is a conventional introduction to the topic a t hand, with an extensive introduction to atomic structure, group theory (yes, again!), and d orbitals. It is directed primarily a t students, except in price. There is, unfortunately, neither a unique enough presentation nor s. unique enough collection of information to warrant anyone paying S1.50 for this t e x t book. It hurts to write this about a book w r i t ten by a friend, but then I'm chagrined to find little or no discussion of such topical matters as the Sugano-Shulman, FreemanWatson and related calculations, of the Ham effect, electronic transitions in the far ir, Zeeman studies, and the inclusion of so much detail on crystal field calculations to the exclusion of MO methods; one searches in vain for the names Wolfsberg and Helmholz, as well as for more recent variants of the procedures described by them. My criticism concerns the conception of the work, for the real interest in electronic 8pedl-a is its relation to electronic stmdure. One is then obligated to seek out complementary results obtained, particularly from paramagnetic resonance and static magnetic susceptibilities. For example, the trigonal field parameters v and v' are dincussed briefly, but certainly their values have been obtained as often by magnetic techniques as by spectroscopic. The relationships between the several methods are not discussed here. The last chapter presents a useful summary (110 pp, 342 references) of numerous d shell crystal field data with an interpretation. As an illustration of themethods for a student, it's too long for my taste, and it is not detailed enough to be of value to the research workers. The spectra. of the lanthanides and actinides are not discussed. tems.

question is, "has it been done far the right reason"? The reader, if a neophyte or veteran heterocycles chemist, will learn much from the text, and the research worker will be elated to find the extensive references. A textbook rightly titled "Principles of Modern Heterocyclic Chemistry" has been written, but for whom? The purpose of the W. A. Benjamin Organic Chemistry Monograph Series according to the Editor's Foreward is to furnish "monographs intended as supplements to a first-year organic text." The books "are designed to be read independently by the interested student and to lead him into the mrrent research liter* ture." To this end the text under review does not score because the approach is too sophisticated for first-year organic undergraduates. The author believes that "exposure of advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students.. . to fundamental heterocyclic system would seem to be highly desirable,'' and this book is to provide such an exposure. This text is highly recommended as an introduction to heterocyclic chemistry for graduate students and for senior undergraduates who might be interested in a research problem in the field. Faced with the fact that new heterocyclic ring systems are reported a t the rate of several hundred per year, how can the subject be best introduced? The Paquette mechanistic approach applied to a limited number of fundamental ring systems is the most logical way. Chapters 4-8 cover common five and six membered ring systems and the references sre about 30% pre-1950. The references of the other chapters: are only 5% pre-1950. Although each chapter is well written, the treatment of three and four-membered RICHARD L. CARLIN heterocycles is no less than superb, and University of Zllinois will long be a major reference in the field. at Chieago Cirde This book is one that every beginning and practicing heterocycles chemist will want to own. Introduction to Magnetochemistry In comparison with "The Principles of Heterocyclic Chemistry," by A. R. Alan Earnshaw, University of Leeds, Katritzky and J. M. Lagowski (THIS England. Academic Press, Inc., New 46, A201, 1969) and the text JOURNAL, 115 pp. Figs. and York, 1968. x under review, the insertion of "Modern" tables. 15.5 X 23.5 cm. 37s. Gd. seems highly in order. The KatritekyThe stated purpose of this short book is Lagowski text is chiefly a reference book to provide an introduction to the more that organizes heterocyclic chemistry, whereas, the Paquette book using the important aspects of magnetochemistry so as to give the beginner in the subject a mechanistic approach, vitalizes heterocyclic chemistry and backed with references general outline of the experimental techniques along with an account of the sort it will stimulate research in the field. of chemical information which they yield. CAMERON AINSWORTH Within this framework the author succeeds Colorado State University admirably. Perhaps the best point of this Fort Collins. Colorado 806921 book is its concise presentation of a collection of pragmatic information difficult for the beginner to find elsewhere. Inorganic Electronic Spectroscopy An introductory chapter discusses the fundamental magnetic behavior of matter, A . B. P. h e r , York University, ToCurie and Curie-Weiss laws, and diamagronto, Canada. American Elsevier netic corrections. Chapter I1 develops Publishing Co., New York, 1968. xii the electronic theories of diamagnetism and 420 pp. Figs. and tables. 15.5 paramagnetism of free atoms and ions X 23 em. $31.50. from a classical model. Russell-Saunders First things first: despite the title, this and j j coupling are described well in this book is devoted to the electronic spectra. of chapter. transition metal ions, and is not concerned The valence bond and crystd field with the spectra of other inorganio sysapproaches to the electronic structures of

+

+

A628

/

Journal of Chemiml Edumiion

transition metal complexes m e reviewed in Chapter 111. The quenching of orbital contribution in transition metal complexes is described and the spin-only formula is introduced. In C h a ~ t e rI V the mametic oronerties of transitcon metal eomple&es are discussed in a sophisticated fmhion. Term ~plittings, Orgel diagrams and TanabRSugano diagrams are employed to describe the electronic structures of metal complexes. The effect of spin-orbit coupling on the ground terms and the second order Zeeman effect are treated well in this chapter. An additional theoret,icd chapter deals with theselected topics of second and third row transit,ion metal complexes, antiferromagnetism, and spin free-spin paired equilibria. Finally along and useful chapter is devoted to an introduction to the measurement and int,erpretation of magnetic properties. The major use of this well-written book will be as a guide for the beginner in magnetochemistry, perhaps a t the advanced undergraduate or firsbyesr graduate level. Experienced researchers with access to more sophisticated reviews and texts will have little need for this book except as a pedagogical aid. &

.

F. L. URB.ACH Case Western Reserve University Clevehd, Ohio 4.6106 Dangerous Properties of Industrid Materials

N . lruing Saz, New York State Health Department, Albany. 3rd ed. Reinhold Rook Corp., New York, 1968. 1251 pp. Figs. and tables. 17.5 vii X 25 om. $35.

+

Previous editions of "Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials" have established this book as the best single reference for dangerous industrid materials. The addition of another 2000 materials, correction of errors in earlier editions, and the improved crogs references, make this new edition even mare useful. Chemical Safety Data sheets from the Manufacturing Chemists Association, Hygienic Guides from the American Industrial Hygiene Association, 8hd the Fire Protection Guide on Hazardous Materials by the National Fire Protection Association, d l give more detailed data on dangerous industrial materials and should be used when the material in which one is interested is listed. The disadvantage of these sources is that the chemical industry is growing very rapidly and many dangerous industrial chemicals in large volume use are not covered by these sources. In order to use properly the section on General Chemicals in "Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials" the reader should become thoroughly versed with the first eleven sections and in many cases with the references listed a t the end of these sections. The sections an Toxicology, Industrial Air Contaminant Control, Repiratory Protection and Personal Hygiene, Control

(Continued on page A630)

book reviews of Environmental Pollution Rltdiat,ion Hazards, Radiological Environmental PolIntion Control, Allergic Diseases in Indnstry Food Additives, and Shipping Ilegulations are well written and present up-to-date material. The sections on Industrial Fire Protection, and Storage and Handling of Hasardons Materials should be rewritten and brought up to date. The section on Indostrid Fire Protection should include material on hydraulically-calculated sprinklers, automatic carbon dioxide spot application and flooding, and smoke and flame detectors. The discussion on fire extinguishers should include the waterpump tank, the air-pressurised water extinguishers, the outlawing of carbon tetrachloride and other vaporining liquids, t,he new dry chemical powders-purple "K" and ABC powder, and a better discussion of metal fires. The section on Storage and Handling of Hazardous Materials does not discuss the new concepts which have evolved from research an high energy materials for rocket propellants. Nothing is discussed concerning separating oxidizing and reducing gases in cylinder storage. A section should be included thoroughly discussing flammable liquids (part,icularly red label) as to the amount and type of use. For example, the handling problems are quite different depending on the amount of flammable liquid handled, the type of wntsiners (55 gallon drums versus

A630

/

Journal of Chemical Education

tanks) and the type of use, such a3 solvent in a kettle versus a coating operation. The Hazard Signal System which has been recommended by the National Fire Protection Association should be discussed under either fire protection and/or storage. "Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials" is a very useful and quick reference, but should never be considered an all-inclusive reference. Many materials in this book have limited inform& tion. This is because further data was not available when the hook was published. If one of these chemicals will he used in large volume, then more data must he obtained. Sometimeq the manufacturer can supply the data to properly handle a dangerous material and a t other times this data must be determined by qualified laboratories. In order to reduce the sire of the book smaller type was used. This is objectionable in the General Chemical Section where many times a rapid reference is desired for specifio information. The fine print makes it more difficult to scan for specific information. I recommend the hook be separated into two separate volumes to reduce the size, and the larger type be used, particularly in the Chemical Section. ''Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials" when properly used can be a valuable tool for people who deal with industrial materials. The hook is highly recommended as one of the reference hooks for people dealing with industrial materials, whether lawyer, toxiwlogist, safety

engineer, physician, industrial hygienist, or one in other fields dealing with industrial materials. PAULW. T R ~ T T 3M Company St. Pad, Ainnesota 66101 Inquiry Techniques for Teaching Science

William D. Romeu, Syraouae University. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, 342 pp. FigNew Jersey, 1968. ix ures. 15.5 X 23.5 cm. Clothbound, $6.95; paperbound, $3.95.

+

Romey's book is an unusual choice for review by THIS JOURNAL.Yet it is appropriate that it he reviewed. The text is a science teaching methods book that shows a unique quality in that the author "preaches what he practices." The teaching methods used by most teachers largely reflert those which they themselves have experienced. In this text, Romey describes the use of a variety of tested soccessfd techniqnes to help the science teacher develop a broader style of teaching. It is not the usual methods hook; it is intended to supplement others already available. The text is divided into two major sections. The first contains sixteen suggested activities, each of which is designed to illustrate those techniques which are a necessary part of the repertory of an effective teacher. For example, one suggests the use of Professor J. J. Schwah's discussion device, "Invitation8 to Inquiry."