Electrochemical and Structural Study of a Chemically Dealloyed PtCu

Sep 13, 2010 - (4, 5) Several factors have been reported to affect Pt−O bonding characteristics .... Table 1. Summary of PtCu Catalyst Composition, ...
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J. Phys. Chem. C 2010, 114, 16309–16320


Electrochemical and Structural Study of a Chemically Dealloyed PtCu Oxygen Reduction Catalyst Indrajit Dutta,*,†,| Michael K. Carpenter,*,‡ Michael P. Balogh,§ Joseph M. Ziegelbauer,‡ Thomas E. Moylan,‡ Mohammed H. Atwan,† and Nicholas P. Irish§ Trison Business Solutions, Inc., Electrochemical Energy Research Lab, and Chemical Sciences and Materials Systems Lab, GM Tech Center, Warren, Michigan 48090 ReceiVed: June 30, 2010; ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed: August 20, 2010

A carbon-supported, dealloyed platinum-copper (Pt-Cu) oxygen reduction catalyst was prepared using a multistep synthetic procedure. Material produced at each step was characterized using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and cyclic voltammetry, and its oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity was measured by a thin-film rotating disk electrode technique. The initial synthetic step, a coreduction of metal salts, produced a range of poorly crystalline Pt, Cu, and Pt-Cu alloy nanoparticles that nevertheless exhibited good ORR activity. Annealing this material alloyed the metals and increased particle size and crystallinity. Transmission electron microscopy shows the annealed catalyst to include particles of various sizes, large (>25 nm), medium (12-25 nm), and small (25 nm), (2) “medium”, 12 to 25 nm, and (3) “small”, less than 12 nm (