Fundamental chemistry (Andrews, Donald H.; Kokes, Richard J

Fundamental chemistry (Andrews, Donald H.; Kokes, Richard J.) R. Stephen Berry. J. Chem. Educ. , 1962, 39 (12), p 653. DOI: 10.1021/ed039p653.2...
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Laboratory Guide for General Chemistry: A Research Approach Hemy S. Gates, Milton College, Milton, Wisconsin. Houghton Mifflin Co., Inc., 97 pp. Figs. and Boston, 1962. x tables. 15.5 X 23.5 cm. Paperbound.



Every college teacher concerned with the direction of a freshman laboratory course should know about this little guide. He would do well to look it over with the thought of applying it to his own situation, for it is a book of considerable stature. Says the author in his Preface: "This Guide grew out of my conviction that labmatory work is . . and will . . . remain the indispensible feature of current instruction in chemistry." To develop a program worthy of this dominant and lasting role, the author projects a plan using semiroutine procedures on s. miniatwe research problem. Each student receives a smdl sample of an individual, unknown organic compound. His problem for the first semester is t o determine such physical properties of this substance as its melting point, boiling



point, density, specific heat, and molecular weight. Then by chemical tests, he finds the functional gI0UpS present and ultimately attempts t o identify the compound. Student judgment will be required throughout, for the directions, though well stated, are general. Furthermore, not all properties can be determined for all unknowns. Depending on properties of tho unknown, the right method will have to he selected before the molecular weight can be properly measured. Student effort will be required throughout, for blank notehooks with sewn binding and numbered pages are used for record keeping. Written reports on each project are p r e pared and submitted. While one may wonder a t first a t the use of organic compounds for study in a general chemistry course, this does not create many real problems. The most serious one lies in the need for understanding the rules of nomenclature. The author turns this liability into an asset by using 15 of his 97 pages in a discussion of the IUPAC rules. The second semester's work is devoted to inorganic qualitative analysis, though

in this Issue

not in its familiar form. All of the unknowns are issued as solids, and they are single salta, not mixtures. Each student first identifies his unknowns by a systematic study of the properties of its ions. Then he devises a scheme for the separation of a mixture of all of them. More detailed information is given in this section of the guide than in the first semester's part, but the same notebook is retained and used, the same kind of reports can be written and submitted, and the same research approach is everywhere noticeable. At the end are five pages of notes to the instructor listing the recommended locker equipment, special apparatus, and shelf reagents. While some of the chemicals listed would not he found in the usual general chemistry stockroom, the locker equipment is standard. Considering the nature of the program there are remarkably few special items of equipment required. When the various parts are all considered together, they add up t o a most impressive laboratory guide. I t must work very well indeed with classes of limited size: the real question, of course, is concerned with its effectiveness in large laboratory sections. Can they he handled this way? This reviewer is one optimistic teacher who wants to try i t to find out. ROBERTD. EDDY Tujts Universzty Medjord, Massachusetts

Fundamental Chemistry

Henry S. Gates, Laboratory Guide for General Chemistry: A Research .4pproach Donald H. Andwws and Richard J . Kokcs, Fundamental Chemistry E m ' n S. Gould, Inorganic Reactipns and Structure Ewing C. Scott and Frank A. Kanda, The Nature of Atoms and Molecules: A General Chemistry E. H. E. Pietseh and the Gmelin Institute, editors, Grnelins Handbuch der Anarganischen Chemie, 8. Auflage, System-Nummer 60, Kupfer. Part B, Section 2 Paul Pascal, editor, Nouveau Trait6 de Chimie Minerale. Volume 5, Zinc, Cadmium, Mereure Cad E. Crouthamel, Analytical Chemistry. Volume 2 Paul Pascal, editor, Nouveau Trait6 de Chimie Minerale. Volume 6, Boron, Aluminum, Gallium, Indium, Thzllium J . Ramtvez-Muiioz and G. Saleedo-Eseobav, Quimica Analitica Cualitativa R. Jirgensons and M . E. Straumanis, A Short Textbook of Colloid Chemistry H. R. Kruyt and J . Th. G. Overbeek, Initiation B la Chimie Physique Durward C. Layde, Introduction to Qualitative Analysis Sidnev J . Johnstone and Margery G. Johnstone, Minerals for the Chemical and Allied Industries G. Stephenson, Mathematical Methods for Science Students 8 . Kenneth Gmham, editor, H . I,. Pinkerfon, assistant editor, Electronlating Engineering Handbook S. G . Waley, Mechanisms of Organic and Enzymic Reactions M . Slacey and S . A . Baker, Carbohydrates of Living Tissues Arthur C. Cope, editor, Organic Reactions. Volume 12 Albert R. Costa, Miehcl Eugbne Chevreul: Pioneei of Organic Chemistry John 0.Edwards, editor, Peroxide Reeotion Mechanisms Georg Karagounis, Introductory Organic Quantum Chemistry W . Theilheimer, Synthetic Methods of Organic Chemistry. Volume 15 H. Grbber and S. Erk, Funditmentale of Heat Transfer Samuel C. Lind, Radiation Chemistry of Gnses G. M. Radqw, The Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds

Donald H. Andrezus and Richard J . Kokes, both of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1962. xv 814 pp. Figs. and tables. 17 X 24.5 em. $7.95.


I t is refreshing and gratifying to see an unconventional new freshman text, especially when its unconventional features satisfy one's own prejudices about the first-year curriculum. Andrews and Kokes have written a book which does represent rt substantial break with tradition. "Fundamental Chemistry" is an attempt to introduce firm physical principles a t the earliest opportunity-to provide freshmen with s. framework of quantum, statistical, and thermodynamic concepts, and to use these concepts t o interpret a large body of chemical phenomena. This reviewer is an outspoken supporter of such aviewpoint. Anyone writing a text or teaching a freshman course which does devote considerable time to thermodynamics or to statistical and quantum mechanics knows very well the very first objection he must answer. I s i t possible, the question goes, t o increase the time spent on "physical chemistry'' and still retain descriptive chemistry, a t least enough descriptive chemistry to develop some chemical intuition and a feeling for the systematic chemistry of the elements. Andrewa and Kokes have demonstrated in their new hook that one can retain a systematic study of descriptive chemistry within

Volume 39, Number 12, December 1962



a highly physical framework. They have gone further, and have used the physical concepts very effectively to interpret and organize the factual material and thereby to make it unusually meaningful. The book, successful as i t is in its descriptive chemistry, definitely suffers from other shortcomings which, in this writer's opinion, partially vitiate its utility. As I examined and read the hook, my initial enthusiasm slowly gave way to doubts and questions. I t might be said t h s t the book's strongest points are its broad conception and motive, that its organization is somewhat weaker, and that i t falls shortest in the details of its execution. The choice of topics is excellent; the interpretations based on energy and momenta, distribution functions, thermodynamic variables and balances between opposing tendencies are clearly the kind one ultimately wants to use in any discussion of chemistry. It seems to me that occasionally and unfortunately the organization suffers when ~hysical concepts are used in inappropriate contexts. For example, temperature is discussed a t length in a treatment of molecular motion which deals primarily with vihrat.ion, rotation, and isomerism, while the discussion of claspical kinetic theory of gases begins with a discussion of energy levels. In fairness, it must be said that the energy level discussion is used t o simplify the derivationloss introduction of the Boltzmann distribution by permitting the authors to use sums instead of integrals. On the other hand, most of the authors' applications of the Boltzmann distribution are just as appropriate to continuous distributions. Why not take an extra page or two to di~cus8distributions in general over continuous or discrete sets of levels? The treatment of specific concepts seema to be the greatest weakness of the hook, and this weakness is most apparent in the handling of thermodynamics. I t is characterized principally by lack of sharp, precise statements of definitions, processes, and conditions. Some examples from a rather long list me the treatment of temperature, which is discussed a t length and quite vaguely in Chapters 2 and 7, but is only defined or discussed precisely in two short par* graphs in Chapter 8, and of enthalpy, whichis slipped into Chapter 10 and defined only a t the end of Chapter 12 (and is not in theindex a t all). Anotherexample: the concept of free volume is used extensively t o treat condensed phases and vapor pressure, hut the emphasis seems somewhat misplaced; the authors use the agreement between the model andTrouton'smle toargue for constancy of freevolume rather than for the insensitivity of the result to large differencesin free volumes. They have thereby missed an opportunity t o make some general observations about the sensitivity of calculations from models. The lack of precision is sufficient in the thermodynamics chapter that I would prefer to supplement "Fundamental Chemistry" with a separate short intraductory thermodynanlics text. I t is my impression that the lack of precision is due primarily to the authors' unwillingness

654 / Journal of Chemical Education

to go entirely to a rigoruua presentation. Had they used their qualitative and intuitive arguments t o supplement more exact statements throughout the book, they would have come much closer t o their ohjective. Despite its shortcomings, this baok is a clear step forward and comes closer than any other single text to an appropriate freshman book for the mid-1960's. I t will certainly be useful, especially to anyone patient and conscientious enough to use its weaknesses for didactic purposes. Unfortunately, it is not the classic which i t might have been; this is the greatest disappointment.

R. STEPHENBERRY Yale University New Haven, Conneclic~rt

Inorganic Readions a n d Structure

Edzuin S . Goald, Stanford Research Institute, Stanford, California. Rev. Ed. Holt, Rineht~rtand Winston, Inc., 513 pp. Figs. New York, 1962. xiv and tables. 16 X 23.5 cm. $6.50.


With a few exceptions, the second edition of this unronventional text, which has had its share of admirers and critics, preserves the contents and format as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the original edition of 1055. To those not familiar with the first edition (cf. J. c m ~EDUC., . 32,545 [19551), it should be mentioned thst the book attempts to present to undergraduate students modem structural concepts at tt moderate level as well as the descriptive chemistry usually neglected in the now largely theoretical general chemistry and graduate inorganic COUIBCS.

Many, but not all of the errors in the first edition have been corrected, but unfortunately other errors, especially in some of the figures, have been introduced with the new material. In general, however, the structural diagrams are clearer; the symbols used in the first edition have been replaced hy circles. The number of references a t the end of each chapter, mostly to texts and review articles through 1960 only, has been considerably increased from 174 t o 308. The numher of exercises, still an excellent and unique feature which distinguishes this baok from other inorganic text^, remains virtually unchanged. Those which will be moat challenging t o the more capable students are now designated with asterisks; instructors may now ohtsin answer sheets from the publisher. The introductory chapter preserves the excellent non-mathematical explanation of atomic structure, hut unfortunately also retains the 0 = 16.000 scale of atomic weights without so much as mentioning the C'2 = 12.000 scale. The chapter on nomenclature reveals only minor changes (e.g., 0x0 instead of oxy), but now conforms to the 1957 IUPAC recommends, tions. The section on Taube's "inner" and "outer" orbital complexes has been replaced b y an excellent presentation in which Gould in his inimitable abbreviated manner discusses intelligently in Lss than

four pages ligxnd field effects, the speetrochemical series, douhle-bonding, spinpaired and spin-free complexes, and the Jahn-Teller effect! The derivations for the splitting of tetrahedral and square planar ligand fields a t r e lacking, hut are relegated t o one of the student exercises. Throughout the book, chemical bonding is now interpreted largely in terms of molecular orbital or ligand field theory. I n keeping with current emphasis on kinetics, the major change in the baok is the addition of a new chapter, Some Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms, which present8 topics hitherto completely neglected or inadequately treated. In summary, this revision consists of an additional 43 pages of text, nan-glare rather than glossy paper, a different color cover, and a few additional figures and tables. The following is a list of the added material to be found in the revised edition: Sidgwick-Powell rules (p. 65), boron hydrides (p. 128), Gordy electronegativity scale (p. 146), graphite compounds (p. 154), metal carbon,yls (pp. 157, 336). spinpaired and spin-free complexes; ligand field effects (p. 357), inorganic reaction mechanisms (Chap. 23), ferroeene and sandwich compounds (p. 40'3), square as. tetrahedral complexes (p. 412), electron spin resonance (p. 415), nuclear magnetic resonance (p. GO), and Ziegler catalysts (p. 441).

Far tho instructor of asurvey course, the hook should serve as a convenient "cheek list" of topics t o be covered, hut for student use, it will have to he supplemented with other material, especially in the descriptive sections. GEORGE B. KAUFFMAN F ~ e s n oStat? College Fresno, California

The Nature of Atoms a n d Molecules: A General Chemistry

Ewing C . Scott, International Christian University, Tokyo, and Frank A. Kenda, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York. Harper and Bros., New 765 pp. Figs. York. 1962. rii and tables. 16 X 24 em. 58.


Another appropriate title for this book would be "The Electronegative Nature of Atoms and Molecules." The concept of electronegativity is a central theme in the book and it is exploited with considerable kill. This approach is used very effeetively when discussing amphoterism. The ionic nature of substances is emphasized and considerable effort is expended to keep the student from getting the idea t,hat there are "naked" ions in solution.

place considerabk emphaais on the importance of d%pa hybrids far the transition elements. The greatly shortened section on organic chemistry does mention "p orbital overlap" but avoids the introduction of D and r bonding. The authors have written some splendid descriptive chapters The approach occasionally may be too mechan~st~c for a book which offers no background for s kinetic discussion of a reaction. The