General Papers

of 297 pupils in 20 O'Level schools in Sierra Leone, West Af- rica. She found the ... chemistry developed from the arts and trades: metal working and ...
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General Papers As with any large conference, there were several presentations which defied compartmentalization into categories. A. B. Johnson (126, DR)presented an analysis of studies of 297 pupils in 20 O'Level schools in Sierra Leone, West Africa. She found the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) to he the best nredictor of sciences in chemistrv and ohvsics . . for students going on to American and European Universities. L. F. Hatch (121. ELS) described asoects of teachinr- and student life in &udi ~ r a b i a . H. G. Friedstein (105.JH, RF) has develooed a curriculum component, "Career Education as an integral Part of the Science Classroom." She uses newsuauer and magazine ads for professionals, annual reports of companies, andfield trips to local industries as resources. She asks students to simulate the development and marketing of a product through the corporate structure. D. A. Katz (103, JH, RF) recommended using historical perspectives as a means of putting descriptive chemistry hack into the curriculum. There are opportunities to show how chemistry developed from the arts and trades: metal working and alchemy, dyes and pigments, huilding materials, glassmaking, perfumes, beer and wine. The talk was highlighted with examoles and a demonstration of changing . ."couwer .. into gold and silver." S. Gannaway (83, CL) detailed a systematic and cumprehensive textbook evaluation instrument which includes the Fry readahility test. Application requires 6-7 hours per text. The levels of coenitive domain are emohasized and the comparison of formal and concrete requirements are obtained through use of the survey; presentation sequence and difficulty of mathematical content are not. K. Berry (80, CL) presented a comprehensive checklist of textbook qualities to he considered prior to adoption. He concentrated on text readahility using several approaches. W. Bleam, Jr., (81, CL) descrihed several useful analogies. The fruit basket analogy is used for stoichiometry, as is the mole-mole bridge. He reports excellent results with students a t the concrete operational stage of development. J. F. Eix (78, RGS) presented a novel approach to teaching students about the periodic chart. His method is hased upon close examination of the ionization energies of the first 20 elements. J. D. Hostettler (69. WH) used . oe-wH . diagrams to diswlav . . the aqueous oxidation reduction chemistry'for a variety of substances. The diarrams are constructed using the Nernst equation a t various ~ H ' s The . resulting graphs delineate regions or fields where the various species are thermodynamically stahle. By comparing the curve for water with that for other elements, one can predict the species stahle in aqueous solution. These diagrams are an excellent tool for displaying descriptive chemistry. L. J. Sacks (47, LLJ) has postulated a new model for chemical bonding based upon the charge ratio and ionic size ratio. Several assumptions are unusual. Hydrogen is considered as the negative hydride ion in all compounds, and electronegativity is rejected as having no physical meaning. G . Rhodes (46, LLJ) has worked out a method for averaging conformations which demonstrates the concepts of chemical versus magnetic equivalency to the most skeptical student.

M. V. O r n a (44, LLJ) descrihed the pigment analysis of a recently discovered medieval manuscript as an example of an interdiscinlinarv " nroiect . . between an analvtical chemist and an art historian. The result has heen the first complete color oalette of a medieval manuscri~t.Techniaues emoloved . " included polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence. V. A. Wilcox (35, GMB) described the teaching of chemistry a t a science museum. Demonstrations must compete for a visitor's attention. Various strategies to develop museum materials were described. K. E. Kolh (26, EK) has used the SQUIB concept, brief news items about chemistry, for years. Students are held resnonsihle for the SQUIB material nresented. SQUIBS mav degenerated by eithkr students or faculty. They iave the effect of sensitizing students to the place of chemicals and the chemical industry in their lives. Bibliography

(126) Seienee Achievement, Scholastic Aptitude a n d SelfConcept as Predictors of Success for t h e School Certificate General Certificate Examinations in Ordinary Level Chemistry a n d Physics of Pupils in Sierra Leone, West Africa. Angela B. Johnson, Ed.D. (121) Where t h e East Meets t h e West i n t h e Chemistry Classroom-Chemical Education i n Saudi Arabia. Lewis F. Hatch, Dhahran Int'l Airport 144,UPM 79, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, and Marie S. Hatch, KFU, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. (105) C a r e e r Education as a n Integral P a r t of the Science Classroom, Harriet G. Friedstein, 4 1 Hilltop Drive, Pittsford, NY 14534. (103) Using History to Present Descriptive Chemistry. David A. Katz, Department of Chemistry, Community College of Philadelphia, 34 South 11th Street, Philadelphia, PA

19107. (83) Chemistry Textbook Evaluation. Susan Gannaway, Nazareth College of Rochester, 4245 East Avenue, Rochester, NY 14fi10.

I t z l l y Looks Good, R u t Why Can't I Understand It? Keith Berry, Department of Chemistry, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA 98416. T h e F r u i t Basket Analogy, t h e Mole-Mole Bridge, a n d Other Excursions into t h e Absurd(ly Useful). William Bleam, Jr., Radnor H. S., 130 King of Prussia Rd., Radnor, PA 19087. ANovel Approach to the Periodic Table. John F. Eix, Upper Canada College, 1345 Kensington Park Road, Oakville, Ontario L6H 2G8. Teaching Descriptive Chemistry with pe-pH Diagrams. John D. Hostettler, Department of Chemistry, University of Colorado, Austin Bluffs Parkway, Colorado Springs, CO PnD"7 """",.

(47) A Unified Model for Chemical Bonding.Lawrence J. Sacks, Christopher Newport College, 50 Shoe Lane, Newport News, VA 23606. (46) Nuclear Equivalence and Conformational Rotation. James S. Todd and Gale Rhodes, Chemistry Department, Whitman College, Walla Walla, WA 99362. (44) Pigment Analysis of the Gladzor Gospel Book of U.C.L.A. Mary Vixinia Orna, O.S.U.. College af New Rochelle. New R o c h e l l e , ~10801. ~ (35) Chemistrv in a Science Museum. Valerie A Wllcox. Museum of ~ c i e n c eScience , Park, Boston, MA 02114. (26) Keeping Chemistry Courses Relevant, Modern, a n d Interesting. Kenneth E:. Kolb, Chemistry Department, Bradley University, Peoria, IL 61625.

Volume 58,Number 1, January 198 1 1 17