I In the Chemical laboratory

55414 b. Honeywell Corporate Research Center ... a feature ... tween organizations. Specific questions ... should be directed to the contact per- son ...
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In the Chemical laboratory Edited by N O R M A N V. STEERE, 140 Melbourne Ave., S.E. Minneapolis. Minn. 55414

LIX. Safety Manuals and Handbooks b. Honeywell Corporate Research Center Building Electrical Circuit Identification 2.6 Grounding 2.7 Hazardous Location 2.8 Storage Batteries 2.9 Radio Frequency Generators 3. Mechanical Safety Practices 3.1 Mechanical Failures 3.2 Machines 3.3 Lasers 3.4 Compressed Gases 3.5 Dust 3.6 Heavy ObjectsLifting 4. Chemical Safety Practices 4.1 Chemical Safety 4.2 General Safety Precautions 4.3 Organic Liquids 4.4 Acids and Bases 4.5 Special Chemical Hazards 4.6 Glass Working 4.7 Radioisotopes 4.8 Chemical Hood Requirements 4.9 Chemical Disposal 5. Building Safety Practices 5.1 Building and Grounds 5.2 Storage 5.3 Ventilation 5.4 Hydrogen Distribution System 5.5 Emergency Evacuation (Fire, Toxic Vapor, Etc.) 5.6 Emergency Equipment Location and Use 5.7 Laboratory Securement 5.8 Overnight Use of Equipment 5.9 Safety Glasses 5.10 Boiler Room 2.5

To help those who may have responsibility for developing written safety guidelines for a laboratory, we continue a series of excerpts from some laboratory safety manuals snd hhandhooks. The series will include examples of detailed safety practices, basic safety policies, reasonable safety regulations, and flexible administrative procedures. Table of contents is listed only to show extent of coverage and variations between organizations. Specific questions or comments ahout any mbnual or handbook excerpt should be directed to the contact person noted at the end of the article. Whether or not they can provide copies of their manual will depend on the policy of their organiarttion. In a litter issue, we plan to have a. report of progress on the development of s. comprehensive laboratory safety manual by the Research and Develop ment Section of the National Safety Council, one of three groups active in laboratory safety. The American Chemied Society and the National Fire Protection Association both have committees working on guidelines and standards that will be appropriate in a laboratory safety manual. Purposes and activities of the three groups will be described here in the nem future.

(Ezcerpts from Sections one, three, fmr and five ave included for our r e a h s . )

SAFETY MANUAL Table of Confenfs 1. Administration 1.1 General Comments 1.2 Safety Committee rtnd Auxiliary Teams 1.3 Corporate Research Center Safety pblicy 1.4 Hazards and Reporting 1.5 Accidents and Accident Re~ortine 1.6 Use of Hazardous ater ria is 1.7 Off-Hour Employee Working Pol;""

~ i s r o fRooks on Safety in the CRC Library 2. Electrical Safety Practices 2.1 Electrical Hazards 2.2 Electrical Shock 2.3 Display of High Voltage Signs and Red Ribhon 2.4 Electrical Wiring, Switches and Fuses 1.8



1. I

General Commenh This manual was prepared to bring together the proper procedures and practices in rtn easily readable form t a guide the Research Center personnel in the observance of safety. To prepare a manual which would cover all the safety practices required for a constantly chang-. ing laboratory, such as ours, would be an impossible task. I t will, therefore, be necessary to occasionally insert additional paragraphs and a. revised Table of Coutents as the need occurs. 1.1.1 Everyone is individually responsible for his own personal safety. Interests in the work performed under the individual's direction is equally important. Encouraging th'e individual to think in terms of erouu safetv fosters an stmossfety program to sphere whGh ailows function smoothly. 1.1.0



1 . 2 A moments reflection prior to the performance of an action which, could conceivably have tLn undesired reaction, is valuable in the prevention of accidents. A moments reflection given prior to an action, such as mixing chemicals or throwing the switch on reciprocating machinery, etc., allows the individual an opportunity to condition his reflexes in the event of an accident. The time saved by a more immediate response to an accident situation is most valurtble when and if an accident OCCUl'8.

1.1.3 The many specialieed equip ment in the various laboratories around the Research Center require special instruetion for operation. This fact precludes the individual from disturbing equipment in a laboratory, other than his own without first consulting the scientist who directs the work of that laboratory. This contact ellows an exchange of information, such as ordinary and extraordinary hazards of that laboratory in addition to checking the individual out on the equipment to be used. 1.1.4 No safety manual would be complete without pointing out the obviom, that horseplay iis dangerom and a potential source of accidents. For this reason we obvioruly will not countenance horseplay at the Research Center. 1.1.5 Good housekeeping is very important to safe operation of a. lsborstory. Congested passageways, papers strewn around, piling boxes and other materials too high or at dangerous heights, create circumstances which promote the possibility of accidents occurring. The rule to follow is there should he a place for everything and everything should be in its place. The safe securement of all laboratories a t the end of each working day is also a necessary requirement to insure the off-hour safety of our building and those who mav " "vet, he workine in it. 1.1.6 Persons working in the building AFTER HOURS and on weekends must sign the register a t the rear entrance of the building, thus making it possible for the guards to periodically check with individuals during their normal rounds. Persons working after hours must have section head approval and two persons should be present if any type of hazardous work is being cmied out.

1.2 Safety Committee and Auxiliary Teams 1.2.0 An organized safety program has paid dividends to any and all organizsi tions which have implemented such a program. The cost of accidents in dollars is not of major importance, but has shown to be a desirable byproduct of a safety program. The big cost of accidents deals (Catinued on page A488)

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with the injuring and maiming of the individual. Individual and group participation in the ssfety program can and will reduce the number and severity of accidents. 1.2.1 Each individual should feel a personal responsibility to think and act safely. Broadly speaking safety is an administrative duty and follows the chain of cominand, with the work director, supervisor, and so on, interested in the aafety of the men beneath them. The management of the Research Center felt that the need for specialized knowledge on safety which is so necessary to implement a ssfety program, could best be obtained through the collective action of a committee. On March 12, 1956, a safety committ,ee was formed by the direction of management. The purpose of this committee is to scientifically investigate hazardous practices and conditions in the laboratory and to develop an expertise in the field of safety which will facilitate the direction of the safety program. 1.2.2 The Safety Committee will work with management to develop a program which will provide a broad safety coverage in the interest of the majority. Policies made with the mutual consent of management and the safety committee, and properly promulgated by inclusion in the Safety Manual become binding to all and are the laws which form the structure of the safety program. The enforcement of safety rules, like other administrative standards d action fall within the area of line authority. 1.2.3 The safety committee is composed of three nonsupervisory personnel, who serve a three year term on a revolving membership basis. These memhers are to be selected from various disciplines to broaden the scientific scope of the committee. A fourth member serves the committee on a permanent basis. His presence lends continuity to the committee over the years and contributes experience that is only possible through years of service. The committee will select two auxiliary teams to assist them in their efforts to maintain and improve laboratory safety. Paragraphs 1.2.4 and 1.2.5 d e scribe the organization and purpose of the auxiliary teams. 1.2.4 The safety inspection teak consists of 23 memhers. T w o memhers are selected frrm ~ 9 v huf the nlalu hu:ldilly3 ni!.r n i n e , o w mrrnlw from rhr l:adi,+ chemistry laboratory, two members from Research 11, and two memhers from the Solid State Electronic Center. Their purpose is to encourage safe practices in their respective work areas and to perform certain emergency functions. 1.2.5 The Building Hydrogen Distribution System Inspection and Mttintenance Team is composed of three members who are completely familiar with the function and operation of the hydrogen s y p tem. These members will periodically check the safety of the system and while one member will be primarily responsible for cylinder replacement, the other members will act as alternates. One of these membem is to be selected from the M e chanical Laboratory and must have the ~





Journol of Chemical Education

necessary qualifications to make system repairs when needed. 1.2.6 The detailed responsibilities of the safety committee and its auxiliary teams are given in Section 1.3 of this manual. 1.2.7 The safety committee expects participation by individuals through the suggestion system. Any and all suggestions should he directed to the safety chairman.

1.3 Corporale Research Center Safely Policy 1.3.0 The following safety policy is the official Corporate Research Center policy which has been approved and is endorsed by management. This policy, as it a p pears here, is also contained in the section head manual as a guide to supervision for maintaining safe working conditions a t the Research Center. 1.3.1 The safety of the individual employee is of prime importance to all concerned in conducting our business. Considerable thought and work has been devoted to this subject and observation of the safety plan should take priority and have precedence over d l work performed. Safety is the business of everyone. This statement is med repeatedly in industry. Repetitions as it may ssonnd, the importance of this thought cannot be averemphasized. Without this employee attitude, all the safety measures msnsge ment can possibly take would still not eliminate accidents. Management is genuinely interested in the safety of all employees and is desirous to take every measure possible to insure that safety. To this end they have assigned themselves certain safety responsibilities and have a p pointed a safety committee to assist in making the Research Center a safe place in which to work. To further insure that all will become familiar with t,his safety plan and to faeilitate the actual operation of the plan, eertain individual responsibilities are outlined in the following pages. 1.3.2

Section Bead Responsibilities

1. To instruct personnel under their supervision, and particularly new employees, to study the Research Center Safety Manual, making certain that all become completely familiar with such items as: B d d i n g alarm system, evacuation procedures, first aid stations, accident procedures, chemical bath locations, eye wash locations. safetv class reouirements.

ments. 2. To discuslss with their scientists and technicians the safety aspects of experimental procedures which are being newly initiated in their section. 3. To periodically pay a safety visit to the labs in their section, giving special attention to unsafe bousekeeping, ventilation chemical hood condition, safety of hydrogen usage, safety of vacuum, stations, storage of equipment and chemicals, adequate lighting, etc.

4. To assign lab personnel the r e sponsihility for lab securement and to enforce the same. 5. To initiate and follow to cample tion the necessary laboratory mainte nance or modification, when needed, to insure safe laboratory working conditions. (Such maintenance or modification may become necessary as a result of establishing a new procedure. Such maintenance problems as broken windows, loose shelves, falling plaster, unsafe electrical outlets, etc. may be brought to his attention by the lab personnel, the Safety Committee or the safety inspectors.) 6. To act on the safety recammendations of his safety inspectors which are made during quarterly safety inspections. To act also on special recommendations made by the Safety Committee. 7. To consult with the Safety Committee when in doubt about the safety of certain practices. 8. To fill out accident reports and send a copy to Safety Committee.


Individual Personnel Responsi-


1. To read the Research Center Safety Manual and fully cooperate by complying with all the suggested safe operating procedures. 2. To report to their section head or to a member of the safety committee all haeards as they appear. 3. To carefully assess the safety of new experimental procedures and seek advice when needed. 4. To acquaint themselves with the needed safety requirements when working temporarily outside their own discipline. 5. To assume responsibility for safety of dl outsiders within their work ares, whether they be visitors or other personnel using their facilities. 6. To think before they act. 1.3.4 Safety Committee Responsibilities 1. To act as safety consultants when the nature of the hazard cannot he solved by routine measures. 2. To consistently acquaint itself with modern safety practices of similar laboratories and to implement such procedures when beneficial. This familiarity can he achieved by reviewing current safety literature, by having a member attend the annual National Safety Meeting and by enlisting in outside course work, when practical.

3. To implement periodic medical checkups for personnel whose work involves a potential risk which cannot he monitored by other means. 4. To order prescription safety glasses for personnel requiring them.


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5. To maintain a group of well trained safety inspectors. Training can best be achieved by an occasional well planned meeting with this group. 6. To supervise the safety inspector's inspection snd to perform a personal veadv insnectian of the buildine and grounds. 7. To conduct an occasional fire drill. 8. To initiate a periodic inspection of the building hydrogen system. (This inspection will be performed by s n appointed team of trsined inspe* tom.) 9. To keep all Lab personnel constantly informed %bout new labaratory safety practices. 10. To initiate the inspection of chemical showers, eye washers and fire lighting equipment. (This inspection should be done by the building maintenance department.) 11. To immediately halt any unsafe practice until a safe method for its continuation has been adopted. 12. To investigate the cause of all laboratory accidents and suggest measures to prevent a reoccurrence. 13. To maintain records on laboratory safety t ~ n dreview each year the areas where improvement is possible. 14. To report directly to the Director of Research and to keep him fully informed about laboratory safety conditions. 15. To update the Research Center Safety Manual yearly.

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1.3.5 Building Maintenance Section Responsibilities 1. To act on the safety recommendations of the section heads or the Safety Committee. The maintenance section should insist on completely understanding the problem a t its outset, thus eliminating the need for further discussions. Where possible a recommended solution to the problem should be suggested by those initiating the recommendation, but the engineering and construction details for the solution of this problem are the respansibility of the maintenanee section. If the maintenance section considers t,he cost for correcC ing any hasard excessively large, they should discuss this with the Director of the Research Center or his a p pointed assistant. This method will eliminate unnecessary discussions between the maintenance section and those making recommendations. 2. To maintain the safety of the building and grounds in accordance with Section V of this safety manual.

3. To periodically check the condi-

(Calinued a page A490) Volume 46, Number 7, July 1969






Safety Hazard Report Copy to: J. N. Dempsey


tion of special safety equipment, i.e., fire hoses, chemical showem, eye washers, etc., and repsir %as needed. 1.3.6 Safety Inspector's Responsibility 1. To carefully inspect his assigned area twice a year. Schedrded months are January and September. 2. To constantly survey the safety in his assigned area and report to the section head in charge of this area, all unsafe practices as they arise. 3. To he aware of the procedures to be followed in case of a n accident so that immediate action can be taken. 4. To direct personnel in his area dming building evacuation. 1.3.7 Hydrogen System Inspection Team Responsibility To periodicdy inspect the hydrogen system for leaks and check the performance of its built-in safety features. (This team must be thoroughly familiar with the operation of this system. The safet,y committee prior to inspection will notify the lab by memo that the hydrogen will be turned off for a short period of time while this inspection is being made.)

1.4 Hazards and Reporting 1.4.0 I n almost every instance a hazardous wndition precedes an accident. For this reason the interest of a safety program, which is concerned with prevention, is more fundamentally concerned with hazards than with accidents. 1.4.1 The reporting of a hmardous condition should be done by contacting your section head or any memher of the safety committee. The haeardous candition will be recorded by the section head or safety committee member on the haeard report form, a copy of which is on the following page. Three copies of this report should be made. The original wpy should be given to the party responsible for oorrecting the hazard. The second copy should be filed by the safety committee for "follow through" purposes, rtnd the third copy should be forwarded t o the Director of Research. 1.4.2. If the hasardous condition is recorded by a safety committee member, he will forward the original copy to the section head in charge of the area where the hazard exists. The Section Head should then promptly take the necessary action. 1.4.3. When the hazardous condition has been corrected, the party making this correction should note the action taken and return the original copy to the section head for his approval and signature. The section head should then forward this signed copy to the safety committee t o complete their "follow through" procedure. A490


Journal of Chemical Edumtion

Section Head, Maintenance (Circle one) From: Safety Committee, Section Head (Circle one)

theless, needs medical attention, call the Methodist Hospital and inform the duty nurse you are bringing a Honeywell employee in who needs immediate attention. Inform her that Dm. D. J. Moos, A. A. Zierold, or D. F. Hickack are Honeywell doctors. The above telephone call, when possible, should be made by the Researoh Center Director's secretary (ext. 8101).

Hazard: 1.5.3. If the accident results in an apparently minor injury, it should nevertheless be properly reported and treated. Such treatment may be administered a t the Research Center's first aid station, or a t Ordnance division's first aid station where a registered nurse is on duty. 1.5.4. If the accident results in an eye injury, Methodist Hospital should be informed that a patient will be brought over for immediate attention.


Hasard Report I n i t i a t e d Date Haaard Corrected -Date



Safety Committee D. Petemon D. Heaps C. Speerschneider 0. Ash RETURN TO SAFETY COMMITTEE

1.5 Accidenh and Accideni Reporting

1.5.0. What to do in the event of an accident cannot he stated in a simple set of roles. Remaining as calm as possible and exercising as much common sense as possible are the..best tools you have for coping with a n accident. This section of the safety manual will, therefore, only attempt to establish guidelines which will be generally useful in the event of an accident. 1.5.1. I n the event of a. serious sccident involving one or more laboratory personnel, immediately a l l the Hopkins Emergency Squad (Phone-935-3321). Calmly, explain t o them (1) how many were injured, (2) how serious the injuries appear t o be, and (3) where this accident occurred. If from your explanation the emergency squsd believe an ambulance or two will he needed, they will summon them. (In case of cyanide emergency, request that s. physician be sent a t oncesee Section 4.5.6) During the five minute period required for the emergency squad to reach the Research Center, administer what first aid you can, obtaining necessary help from Research Personnel. 1.5.2. If the accident does not warrant the Hopkinaemergency squsd, but, never-

L5.5. If the accident involves acid or base spillage, immediately flush the area with large amounts of water. Flushing should be continued until it is certain that all the acid or base had been washed away. (Eye washes and the chemical showers located in the halls should he used withnut hesitation or delay.) The patient should then he taken immediately to Methodist Hospital for further treatment. 1.5.6. If the accident results from inhalation of toxic fumes or gas, in particular cyanide gas, immediately call the Hopkins Emergency squad and contact the safety committee so that they or s, properly trained person can administer oxjgen and other first aid procedures. I t cannot be stressed too strongly though, that the Safety Committee be informed before cyanide is used. 1.5.7. All accidents simple or complex must be reported to the Research Direotor's secretary, when the emergency is over. A record of the accident is important to the em~loveeas well as the com-

known to develop complications, thus a report of this injury is a must if you are to be given full protection. 1.5.8. Remember, if thereis any doubt, whatsoever, in your mind regarding the seriousness of an injury, play the safe side and summon all the help you may need. It is better to be safe than sorry.

1.6 Use of Hazardous Materials 1.6.0. It is recommended that all personnel, whose work requires the use of hazardous materials, make a study of the hazardous moperties of this material and post this d i t a