Ion Exchange


ROBERT KUNIN AND F. McGARVEY. ROHM a HAAS CO., PHILADELPHIA, PA. During the past ... developments. Bauman et al. (2A) wrote an excellent account...
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ION EXCHANGE ROBERT KUNIN AND F. MCGARVEY ROHM & HAAS CO., PHILADELPHIA, PA.

During the past year, ion exchange technology has advanced considerably. Industrial applications which had been initiated in previous years on a laboratory and pilot scale reached plant scale operation. Through experimental studies, earlier theories were substantiated. Permselective membranes were widely discussed, both from a theoretical and applied point of view. A symposium on ion exchange was held by the American Institute of Chemical Enginews and again the Gordon Research Conference held a conference on ion exchange. Future developments in ion exchange will probably follow the well defined paths based on earlier work.

the effect of continuous infinitesimal replacement on equilibria in cation exchangers. Hogfeldt ( M B ) treated exchange equilibria as a binary nonideal mixture. Bonner ( I B )obtained equilibrium constants for the silverhydrogen, sodium-hydrogen exchange on a polystyrene sulfonate resin Kagawa (35B,STB) and Yamamoto (6SB, 64B) reported equilibrium and kinetic data on anion exchangers. Boyd and Soldano (3B) developed a series of osmotic free energies from volume changes in the exchanger system. The kinetics of ion exchange processes were studied extensively during the past year. Gilliland (W4B) developed a correlation for break-through curves based upon particle size and flow rate using dimensional analysis. Merriam et al. (@B) studied ion exchange mechanisms for deep beds of carboxylic cation exchanger. Lapidus @OB) studied the effect of longitudinal diffusion on chromatographic columns. Hiester (31B) developed the mathematics of column performance based on second order reaction kinetics. A process of gradient elution was developed by Cherkin ( 1 I B )for use in chromatographic separations. Fujita (BWB)made a theoretical study of percolation for the case of two solutes. Rosen ( 5 B ) carried out an extensive development on the mathematical theory of ion exchange processes. Dryden (16%) reported on mass transfer in packed beds a t low Reynolds numbers. Vermeulen (67B, 58B) derived an equation for exchange which is particularly useful in the correlation of column runs in nonaqueous solvents. Hagerty (I9B) studied the coppercalcium cycle for a sulfonated polystyrene cation exchanger. Deckel (14B) and Bolm examined the advantages of countercurrent elution techniques. The effect of temperature on ion exchange equilibria and performance was examined by Kagawa (S6B),Peremyslova (Q8B),and Short (56B). Extensive work on ion exchange in nonaqueous solvents was reported by Katzin (38B), Chance (QB),and Brusset (5B). The mechanism of ion exchange in plant roots was examined by Epstein (18B). Various graphical methods were developed by Pfeiffer (49B) and Zeegers (65B). Van Dranen (15B) developed an empirical equation for cation exchange. A hydraulic equation developed by Hill (SWB) is useful in determining channeling in packed beds. The properties of ion exchangers as a function of structure has been the subject of several studies. Wall (GOB) reported on the theory of ion exchangers as polyelectrolytes. Pepper (46B,47B), Hale (SOB), and Reichenberg (6OB, 51B) studied equilibria, hydration properties, rates, and the molecular sieve effect on sulfonated polystyrene divinylbenzene copolymers of varying degrees of cross linking. Calmon (6B, 7 B ) employed variations in volume of low cross-linked ion systems in order to determine ionic properties of solutions. Selectivity of ion exchange materials has been discussed by Deuel (ISB),Vickery (69B),and Glueckauf (25B). Equilibria concepts were used to determine the existence of complexes in solution (19B-W1B, and 39B). Gaines (WSB) formulated a thermodynamic theory in silicate crystals using montmorillonite as a model. The ion exchange theory in silicate crystals was extended by Barrer ( I B ) . Ion exchange equilibria was measured by Nagamatsu (45B) on alginic acid, in soils by Broadbent (4B),of humic acid by Chatterju (IOB),and on esterified collagen by Gustavson (68R). Exchange equilibria for some

HE work done in the field of ion exchange has been treated

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from both a fundamental and a functional basis.

REVIEWS Xumerous reviews have appeared during the year which cover the field of ion exchange application and in some cases theoretical developments. Bauman et al. (IA) wrote an excellent account of recent developments in ion exchange theory. Griessbach (5A),a pioneer ion exchange worker in Germany, reviewed the development of the history of ion exchange materials. Pepper (IOA, I4A), Reichenberg (15A), and Xressman (7A) wrote reviews on the general nature and properties of ion exchange resins which are produced in England. Similar reviews were written by Honda (6A) in Japan, Waeser ( I I A ) and Voituret (WOA) in Germany. Several important reviews have concerned themselves with the use of exchange in analytical chemistry. Samuelson (I7A) has written a book on the subject and has outlined special features of this application in a report in Germany (18A). Osborn (I3A) wrote an excellent review on the analytical aspects of ion exchange and has cataloged more than a thousand papers according to subject. Tompkins (19A) hasmade a more limited review. Reviews on special subjects and applications have also appeared. Moreno (9A), Borghetty (SA), Nordell ( I I A , IRA), and -4nderson (1A) discussed the various phases of ion exchange in water conditioning. The use of ion exchange in the production of fine chemicals (4A) was reviewed in England. Mindler (8A) reported on an exchange in the hydrometallurgical fields and Roberts (16A) reported on demonstration experiments for ion exchange instruction.

THEORY The basic theories of ion exchange have been aided considerably during the past year by an increase in the necessary accurate experimental data. No new theories were proposed but the older theories were extended to interpret experimental studies in nonaqueous systems. Methods for calculating and expressing break-through curves were developed using procedures employed developed a theory for in distillation calculations. Cook (IWB), ion exchange involving clay minerals and polyamines. Duncan (IYB),extended the theory of ion exchange resins as concentrated hydrated polyelectrolytes. Gregor (26B, IYB) reported measurements on water vapor sorption and on the diffusion of ions in sulfonated polystyrene cation exchange resins of varying degree of cross linking. These results tend to confirm Gregor’s theory of ion exchange electrolytes. Nagamatsu (43B, 44B) reported equilibria studies on anion and cation exchangers. Sakai (6SB) employed Bethe-Fowler statistics to derive an expression for ion exchange equilibria. An empirical formula was developed for cation exchange by Yamabe (62%). m’iklander (61B) studied

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January 1954

new exchangers were reported by Jurkiewicz (S4B), and Shah ([email protected], 55B). Cassidy (8B) examined theoretically the properties of oxidation-reduction exchangers. Medley (41B), observed the frictional electrification of ion exchangers and attempted to explain the phenomenon.

MEMBRANES The widespread interest in permselective membranes predicted in the previous reviews has been substantiated. Many workers have reported on the preparation of ion exchange materials which had the properties of permselective membranes. Helfferich (14C), Sagasatva and Schlogl ( S C ) developed new theoretical concepts in order to account for potentials across permselective membranes. Schlogl ( S d C ) made measurements on ion mobilities for cation and anionic membranes. Schmid (56C) measured the potentials for a series of collodion membranes in dilute salt solutions, Vervelde ( 4 3 2 ) examined the electrochemica behavior of plant roots. Basic data on the properties of ion permeable systems were reported by Craig (IOC), Grimm ( I S C ) , and Overbeek (28C). The electrochemical properties of several new synthetic ion permeable membranes were reported by Winger, Bodamer, and Kunin, (46C). hlanecke (22C-24C) reported on the electrical conductivity of cation and anion exchange membranes. Landsberg ( 2 l C ) and Bergsma (6C) also made measurements of the potential drop across various membranes. Juda and McRae (17C, 18C) reported on the preparation of varioue types of membranes and also described cells designed for their use. The deionization of brackish waters by electrodialysis has been of considerable interest. A multicomponent cell for the preparation of potable water from sea water has been reported by Kollsman (SOC) and Wiechers (45C). This process has been reviewed by Arnold (SC). Various special applications have been reported in the literature. Astrup (4C) described the deionization of amino acid solutions. Schindewolf (SSC) determined the dissociation constant of polyphosphates by measurement of membrane potentials. Dry cells (SOC), electrodes (SSC), (29C), study on protein structure (7CJ 8C) and their use as filters (6C) were discussed during the course of the year. I n addition to those studies, numerous papers and patents appeared which pertain to membrane processes ( I C , dC, 9C, 11C, 12C, 15C, 16C, i g c ) , 25c, 37c, S I C , 44~).

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WATER SOFTENING The softening of water by ion exchange continues to be the largest single application of ion exchange. The amount of literature on this subject does not reflect properly the importance of this field. A consumer’s bulletin ( 5 D ) evaluates small portable units for household use. An article in Electrical Merchandizing describes the potential sales market for domestic softeners ( 6 0 ) . Laison ( 9 0 ) reviewed the economies for municipal and domestic softening. Rivera (13D)reported on performance of a hot limeion exchanger softener plant. A review (15D) points out the importance of soft water make-up for low pressure boiler plants. Fitzpatrick ( 1 9 0 ) compared costs for various treatment plants. Kittridge ( 1 8 0 ) discussed dealkalization for small power plants. Lindsay ( 1 0 0 ) reported on a process for treatment of the effluent from a hot lime softening plant. Thompson (16D, 17D) dem i b e d some recent approaches to water conditioning with ion exchange resins. A new method of dealkalization was reviewed in Power Engineering ( 1 8 0 ) . The Water Works Manual reviewed the various methods of water treatment available ( 1 8 0 ) . Nordell (1D) discussed methods for treating water for textile plants. Michau ( l 1 D ) has devised a graphical method for interpretation of pressure diagrams in packed beds. Methods for cleaning ion exchange beds have been examined ( 2 4 0 ) . Several designs for ion exchange units have been proposed ( 2 0 , 7 D , SOD). Some new treatment procedures were disclosed (30,4 0 ) .

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DEIONIZATION The use of ion exchange deionization for the treatment of high pressure boilers has continued with high interest particularly in the power utility field. Numerous field reports have become available. Butokofer (2E) outlined the use of deionized water in pharmacological applications. Gilwood ( 9 E ) reported on the silica removal characteristics of strong base exchangers. Harlow (1OE) gave an account of a large two-bed installation used for the treatment of make-up to high pressure boilers. Lalli (1223) studied the bacterial contaniination of waters after ion exchange deionization. Several field reports appeared in various journah devoted to the power field ( d l E , 23E-25E). Sesson (He)gave a report for 3 years operation of three-bed deionization system. A symposium before the American Institute of Chemical Engineers has reviewed the theory, design, and field performance (%7E,28E) of mixed bed ion exchange units. Field performance from mixed-bed (Monobed) units were reviewed in several places, (SE, 15E, and 9OE). Gilwood (TE, 8E) compared the econoniics of mixed bed with two bed deionization. Thompson ( H E ) reported on factors influencing the operation of anion exchange resins. Lindsay (1SE) discussed methods for acid regeneration df cation exchangers. Morris (16E) reviewed the economics of deionization and that of evaporation. Interest in the deionization of brackish and saline waters was high during the year ( 4 E , 6E, SOE, and S1E). These articles deal x-ith governmental investigations into water shortages and reduction in water tables which are becoming of world wide interest. McCorkle (14E) reported on ion exchange deionization in heavy water. Kiuchi ( I I E ) , Durant (6E), and Benton (1E) reported on problems and application of deionization of water. Turvolgyi (29E) described the use of lignin sulfonic acids as possible regenerants in deionization units. Methods for the improvement of hydrogen cycle operation were also disclosed (ISE, 19E). Siwa (I7E) prepared sterile deionized samples by ion exchange treatment

BIOCHEMICAL SEPARATIONS Ion exchange resins have been used extensively for the separation of biochemical substances. The exchangers having strong electrolyte properties were used frequently to separate sugar#, peptides, amino acids, and the esters of ribonucleotides. Ion exchange techniques have become routine in amino acid separations. Carsten (14FJ 15F), Crokaert (17F), and Stein (48F), fractionated amino acids from urine. Shewan (45F), Hulme ( 2 1 F ) , and Underwood (52F) employed ion exchange to determine the amino acid contents of fish, fruit, and coffee, Similar studies were made on a variety of other sources of amino acids (fF,SF, 4F, d S F , 24F, SSF. 36F, S8F, 4 9 F d l F , and 63F). Proteins, peptides, and ribose esters were studied in a variety of ways using ion exchange chromatography (BF, 7F, lOF, I S F , 18F, 19F, 21F, 22FJ 36F, 4 t F , 54F, and 6OF). Ion exchange procedures for the separation of nucleotides have now become standard practice. The separation of sugars ( I Z F , SOF, 97F, and 61F)polysaccharides ($OF) and glycosides (16F)-has been successful. Degradation of sugars by these techniques has also been observed ( M F , SQF). Carboxylic exchangers have been used to purify and concentrate pituitary hormones ( 9 F , 4OF,and 56F). Strong base exchangers were also used in these studies @IF, 41F). Ion exchange resins were also employed in several special purifications such as histamine (ZQF), pectase ( d F ) , bacterial surfaces (5F), chlorogenic acid (26F), constituents of gums (55F), flavors (67F-59F), coendyme h (4SF, 47F), vitamin B-12 (,%F, 4487, cytochrome C (SdF), and for antibiotics ($SF, 46F) Ion exchange was used as a test for biochemical purity in several cases (8F, 12F).

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INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RECOVERY, PURIFICATION, PREPARATION, AND ANALYSIS

The use of ion exchange techniques in the recovery, purification, and analysis of complex systems has continued to be of interest. Again sugar liquor purification by deionization of beet and cane molasses has been accomplished in many laboratories and refineries (JG, 10G, 15G, l Q G , ZZG, 25G, SQG, 48G, 74G, 77G, 80G, 88G, lOSG, lO4G, 107G, IOQG, lWOG, 122G, lSOG, l S l G , l % $ G ) . Milk products were modified by ion exchange treatment (S8G, 4OG, 6OG, 70G, 8QG, and Q I G ) . Several plant juices were treated and valuable components recovered (%"G, SOG, 7QG, ZOIC, lOSG, 108G, and IZ8G). A synthesis for valine was reported ( 4 G ) . Glycerol (SG, Q6G), acrylonitrile (QOG),glycine ( S S G ) , and sweet waters (84G) were processed and purified. Wines (S6G, SQG, 44G, 5QG) and alcohols (116G, 121G) were treated. Wort and beer (85G) were modified by cation exchange. Dextrose (WOG, 72G) and blood anticoagulants (Q7G) were deionized. A dextrose process (86G) employed ion exchange for deacidification. Ion exchange techniques were used extensively in anaytical procedures for the determination of narcotics (&G, Y l G ) , nicotine (N'G), sulfamides (58G), alkaloids ( % j G ) , atebrin (SSG), sympathomimetric amines (57G), and antihistamines (56G). Rare earth chemistry was aided by ion exchange chromatography (47G, 51G, 94G, Q5G, 115G, 118G, 11QG, and l Z 4 G ) . Carboxymethyl cellulose was purified ( I 7 G ) . Solutions containing stockyose (SSC), galectogen ( l S S G ) , n-xylosamine ( I S S G ) , organic phosphonic acids ( Z I G ) , and resorcinol (45G) were deionized and modified. Solutions containing oligosaccharides ( 1S6G) enzymes ( l S G , 26G, ISG, 6SG, and 265G), threitan ( 6 4 G ) , pinoresinol ( 7 5 G ) ,vanillin (QSG), isoasparagine ( I l S G ) , glutamic acid ( I l G ) , histidine (ZC),polysaccharides ( I S G ) , and apo-p-erythroidine (4SG) were processed and purified. By means of ion exchange techniques, copper was removed from oils and gasoline (ZSG, I S S G ) , bentonites and clays were modified (YSG, 127G, I S Q G ) , dibutyl phthalate ( l l 4 G ) was studied, amine inhibitors were removed from monomers (81G), ferric hydroxide sols mere prepared (8.%G),and silicic acid sols aere modified and prepared (QG, 53G, 54G). The valence and stability of many inorganic complex salts were measured ( l 4 G , 28G, S4G, 41G, 61G, 6QG, 76G, 78G, 1SSG). Several inorganic analytical determinations were aided by exchange techniques; aluminum in zirconium (96G), in oxidant analysis (46G), total concentration (QQG), standardization of caustic ( I l O G ) , and silicate analysis ( I I I G ) . Numerous separations were reported in concentrated hydrochloric acid solution (5OG, 6 4 G 4 7 G ) . Studies were reported on inorganic exchangers (SSG) and (35G). Use of ion exchange to concentrate radioisotopes was discussed (49G, 55G). Hydrogen peroxide (S1G ) purification was reported. Determination of organic components was also mentioned (5G, S7G, and Q8G). Several polyelectrolytes were treated with exchangers (5ZG, QSG, I l 7 G ) . Commercial preparations of heavy chemicals by ion exchange was outlined in Japanese patents (GG-gG, 105G, 106G, 124G). Deionized gelatin sols were prepared for surface activity on studies (1OOG).

WASTE TREATMENT The recovery of valuable metals from waste solutions and the increased interest in conservation of water and other natural resources has been reflected in the widespread use of ion exchange in the field of waste treatment. Bliss ( 1 H ) disclosed a process for treatment of copper, zinc, and chromium ions. Bott ( 2 H ) described a method for the treatment of thiocyanate solutions. The plating and anodizing industries have been using ion exchange extensively ( S H - G H , i l H , - l S H , 1 5 H ) . Rayon wastes have been treated in order to recover copper ( 7 H , 8 H ) . Lead removal from water has been accomplished ( Q H ) . The use of exchangers in waste disposal has been reviewed by Mindler ( I O H ) . Vincent ( l 4 H ) used ion exchange techniques on citrus wastes.

Vol. 46, No. 1

CATALYSIS Ion exchange resins of all types were used in catalytic processes during the past year. Most studies were for preparation on a laboratory scale. Bernhard ( S I ) studied the hydrolysis of esters by an ion exchange catalyst and found some specific effects. Proteins were hydrolyzed by Paulson (151). Saleton (161) and Barker (SZ) used exchangers in alcoholysis and esterification reactions and attempted to define the kinetics. Schlenk (171) and Wedequist (191) studied methanolysis and hydrolysis effects. Boekalheide (4Z) used a strong base exchanger in a hydrogenation reaction. Sugar inversion was studied by Wadman (181). Weinstock (SOZ) used exchangers in Hofmann degradation studies. Crotonization reactions were studied by LaGrange (QZ), and Durr (5Z, 61) and dehydration reactions were reported by Mastagli (201, 141) and Grummett ( 8 1 ) . Various condensation reactions were catalyzed by ion exchange substances (IZ,71, 1111SI).

ION EXCHANGE RESIN SYNTHESIS As in previous years, a large number of patents and papers appeared describing methods for the preparation of ion exchange resins. This year procedures for the preparation of several unusual exchangers have appeared. Electron exchangers were prepared by Manacke ( 6 1 J ) , Cassidy ( 1 5 J ) , and Ezrin ( S 7 J ) . Ion exchange materials synthesized from cottons were reported ( 1 4 5 , 4 0 J ) . McBurney ( 5 7 J ) prepared polymeric bases for ion exchange synthesis. Chelating exchangers were disclosed ( S Q J , 5 6 J ) . Development of methods for the preparation of exchangers in various physical forms was described (TJ-SJ, 5 1 J , 7 7 5 ) . A method for the preparation of exchanger particles having magnetic properties wasdisclosed ( 2 5 J ) . The following references deal with cation exchanger synthesis ( S J , I l J , 16J-185, ZOJ-SdJ, S6J-%3J, SOJ, 8 8 5 4SJ-44J, 5 0 J , 6 2 J - 6 6 J , 6 8 5 , 7OJ-75J). Inorganic exchangers were prepared by Bond (1OJ) and De La Roche ( S Q J ) . A vast amount of activity is evident in anion exchanger synthesis as the following references indicate ( Z J , S J , 4 J - 6 J , l S J , l S J , l Q J , S l J - S 6 J , C I J , 46J-4QJ, 69J-555, 58J-60J, 6 7 J , 6 9 5 , 76J, 78J).

MEDICAL APPLICATIONS The interest in ion exchange processes in the human body and how they can be influenced by ion exchange resins has been the subject of considerable interest particularly in the treatment of a variety of edemic conditions ( l K , S K , 4 K , 6 K - Z S K , 1 6 K , 1 7 K I Q K ) . These studies were directed toward improvement in acidity and potassium deficiencies experienced in earlier ion exchange materials. The field of medical applications was reviewed by Orbegozo ( 1 6 K ) and Bersin (SK). Influence of chelators on ion exchange therapy was reported by Martin ( l 4 K ) . Blood storage was improved ( 5 K ) and yeast preparations were modified

(ZOK). APPARATUS, PROCESSES, AND TEST PROCEDURES As in the past, activities in apparatus and processing have been directed toward continuous operation and automatic controls. I n addition, several processes and techniques have been developed which involve special handling of ion exchange materials. Nakahara ( S 7 L ) reported on a process for the concentration of sea water. Wheaton ( 9 L , 36L) described a process employing the ion exclusion properties of ion exchange polymers. Skogseid (S2L) developed an exchange procedure for concentrating potassium. Methods for the disposal of radioactive wastes were reported by Ginell (16L), Guest (16L),and Jackson (2024. Acidbase properties of exchangers were employed for test purposes in several laboratories ( 1 7 L - l Q L , S I L , S 7 L ) . Methods for the regeneration of exchange units were reported ( l L , ZL,1 4 L , dbL,

January 1954

INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING C H E M I S T R Y

and SOL). Methods for controlling the length of operational cycle were disclosed (IIL-ISL). Controls on sugar plants and hydrogen cycle were given by Blight (5L) and Emmerich (IOL). New processes for metal recovery were outlined (6L-815, and 28L). Electrolytic regeneration (16L), continuous countercurrent operation (24L,S4L), and methods of sterilization of the beds (85L)were also discussed. Design of chromatographic apparatus (S6L) and air dome control (SSL) were given. Capacity determination (dlL, d9L) for field use were outlined. Bauman (%) reported on an ion exchange precipitation method for reducing solids. Special procedures for the preparation of plant growth promoters (2%) and polyelectrolyte modifiers (415)were reported.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance of H. Tucker and the library staff of the Rohm & Haas Co. for their aid in the procurement of the many articles referred t o in this review.

BIBLIOGRAPHY REVIEWS

(1A) Anderson, J., Chemistry in Can., 4, 41-4 (1952). (2A) Bauman, W., Anderson, R., and Wheaton, R., Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem., 3,109-30 (1953). (38) Borghetty, H., Bernard, J., and Winters, J. C., Am. Dyestuj” Reptr., 42,338-42 (May25,1953). (49) Chem. & Process Eng., 34,85 (March 1953). (5A) Griessbach, R., 2.Elektrochem., 57, 3, 147-62 (1953). (6$) Honda, M., Kagaku, 22,285-94 (1952). (7A) Kressman, T., C h m . Products, 16, 3-7 (1953). (SA) Mindler, A,, and Paulson, C., National Meeting Am. Inst. Mining Met. Enms.. LOBA n d e s (Feb. 18. 1953). (9A) Moreno,>., and Burlage, H., Am. Profess. Pharmacist, 18, 783 9,823-6 (1952). (10A) Nature, 170,648 (Oct. 18,1952). (11.4) Nordell, E., Am. Dyestuf Reptr., 42, 371-8 (June 8, 1953). (l2A) Nordell, E., Consulting Engineer, 2, 22-8 (1953). (138) Osborn, G., Analyst, 78, 220-252 (April 1953). (14A) Pepper, K. Trans. Plastics Institute, 20, 68-84 (July 1952). (15A) Reichenberg, D., Research, 6, 302-308 (August 1953). (16A) Roberts, T., Willeford, B., and Alberty, R., J . Chem Ed., 29, 542-8 (November 1952). (17A) Samuelson, O., “Ion Exchange in Analytical Chemistry,” New York, J. Wiley & Sons, 1953. (18A) Samuelson, O., 2. Elektrochem., 57,207, 213 (1953). (19A) Tompkins, E. R., Analyst, 77,970-82 (1952). (20A) Voituret, K., Seifen-Ole-Fette-Wachse, 78, 67-70, 91-3, 146 (1952). (21A) Waeser, B., Kolloid-Z., 131, 41-6 (April 1953). THEORY

(1B) Barrer, R., and Hinds, L., J . Chem. SOC.,1953, pp. 18791888. (2B) Bonner, O., and Rhett, V., J . Phys. Chem., 57, 254-6 (February 1953). (3B) Boyd, F., and Soldano, B., 2. Elektrochem., 57 (31, 162-72 (1953). (4B) Broadbent, F., and Bradford, G., Soil Sci., 74,447-57 (December 1952). (5B) Brusset, H., and Kikindai, M., Chim. anal., 34, 192-3 (1952). (6B) Calmon, C., Anal. Chem., 24,1456 (1952). (7B) Ibid., 25,490-2 (March 1953). (8B) Cassidy, H., Earin, M, and Updegraff, I., J.’Am. Chem. Soc., 75,1615-17 (April 5,1953). (9B) Chance, F., Boyd, G., and Garber, H., IND. ENG.CHEY.,45, 1671-6 (August 1953). (10B) Chatterju, B., and Bose, S., J . Colloid Sci., 7, 414-27 (1952). (11B) Cherkin, A., Martinez, F., andDunn, M., J . Am. Chem. SOC., 75,1244-5 (March 5,1953). (12B) Cook, M., Cutler, J., Hill, G., Wadsworth, M., and Oblad, A., J . Phys. Chem., 57.1-6 (January 1953). (13B) Deuel, H., Hutschneler, K., and Solms, J., 2. Elektrochemie, 57,172-8 (1953). (14B) Deekel, G., and Bolm, G., Ibid., 57, 201-7 (1953). (15B) Dranen, J., van, Rec. trav. chim., 71, 1157-8 (November 1962). (16B) Dryden, C., Strong, D., and Withrow, A.. Chem. Eng. Progr., 49,191-5 (April 1953).

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(17B) Duncan, J., Proc. Roy. SOC. (London), A214, 344-55 (Sept. 23,1952). (18B) Epstein, E., Nature, 171,83-4 (Jan. 10,1953). (19B) Fronaeus, S., Acta Chem. Scand., 6, No. B, 1200-11 (1952). (20B) Ibid., 7, 21-31 (1953). (21B) Fronaeus, S., Svenak K e m . Tidskr., 64,317-24 (1952). (22B) Fujita, H., J . Phys Chem., 56, 949-53 (November 1952). (23B) Gaines, G., and Thomas, H., J . Chem. Phys., 21,714-18 (April 1953). (24B) Gilliland, E., and Baddour, R., IND.ENQ.CHEM.,45, 330-7 (February 1953). (25B) Glueckauf, E., and Kitt, G., Nature, 171, 1010-12 (June 6, 1953). (26B) Gregor, H., and Gottlieb, AI., J . Bm. Chem. Soc., 75, 3539-43 (July 20, 1953). (27B) Gregor, H., Sundheim, B., Held, K., and Waxman, M., J. Colloid Sci., 7, 511-34 (October 1952). (28B) Gustavson, K., Acta Chem. Scand., 6, 1443-51 (1952). (29B) Hagerty, F., and Bliss, H., IND.ENG. CHEM.,45, 1253-9 (June 1953). (30B) Hale, D., Packham, D., and Pepper, K., J . Chem. Soc., 1953, pp. 844-51. (31B) Hiester, N., and Vermeulen, T., Chem. Eng. Progr., 48, 50516 (October 1952). (32B) Hill, S., Chem. Eng. Sci., 1, No. 6, 247-53 (1952). (33B) Hoafeldt. E., Arkiv K e m i , 5 , 147-71 (1952). (34B) Jurkiewics, J., and Zielinski, H., Prace Gt6wnego Inst. G6rnictwa (Ratmuice), Komun., 7 4 , l l (1951). (35B) Kagawa, I.,‘and Kasashi, R., J . Chem. SOC.J a p a n , 53, 126-8 (1950). (36B) Kagawa, I., and Kasashi, R., Ibid., 54, 242-4 (1951). (37B) Katzin, L., and Gilbert, E., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 801-3 (Feb. 20,1953), (38B) Kagawa, I., and Sato, S., Ibid., 53, 85-7 (1950). (39B) Kruger, P., and Schubert, J., J . Chem. Ed., 30, 19&8 (April 1953). (40B) Lapidus, L., and Amundson, N., J . Phys. C h e m , 56, 984-8 (November 1952). (41B) Medley, T., Nature, 171, 1077 (June 13, 1953). (42B) Merriam, C. N., Southworth, R., and Thomas, N. C., J . Chem. Physics, 20,1842-6 (December 1952). (43B) Nagamatsu, M., J . Electrochem. SOC.Japan, 20, 123-8 (1952). (44B) Ibid., pp. 203-6. (45B) Nagamatsu, M., and Seiyama, T., Ibid., 20, 170-2 (1952). (46B) Pepper, K., et al., J . Chem. Soc., 1952,3129-36. [47B) Pepper, K., and Reichenberg, D., 2. Elektrochem , 57, 1838 (1953). (48B) Peremyslova, E., and Stashko, R., J . Appl. Chem. U.S.S.R., 24,995-7 (1951). (49B) Pfeiffer, P., Chem. Eng. Sci., 2, 45-52 (April 1953). (50B) Reichenberg, D., Research, 6, 95-115 (February 1953). (51B) Reichenberg, D., J . Am. Chem. SOC.,75,589-97 (Feb. 5, 1953). (52B) Rosen, J., Univ. Microfilms, Pub. 4591,129 pp. (53B) Sakai, W., and Seiyama, T., Mem. Fac. Eng. K y u s h u Univ., 13,95-117 (1953). (54B) Shah, H., and Bafna, L., J . A p p l . Chem., 3, 335-6 (July 1953). (55B) Shah, H., and Bofna, S., J . Indian Chem. Soc., 29, KO.3, 18792 (1952). (56B) Short, J., Smith, P., and Twigg, G., J. A p p l . Chem., 3, 198206 (May 1953). (57B) Vermeulen, T., IXD. ESG. CHEM., 45, 1664-70 (Auguat 1953). (58B) Vermeulen, T., and Hoffman, E., Ibid., 45, 1658-64 (August 1953). (59B) Vickery, R., Nature, 170,665-6 (Oct. 18,1952). (60B) Wall, F., and Grieger, E,, J . Chem. Phys., 20, 1200, 1206 1211 (1952). (61B) Wiklander, L., Kgl. Lantbruks-Hogskol. Ann., 18, 154-62 (1951). (62B) Yamabe, T., and Sato, S., J . Chem. Sac. Japan, I n d . Chem. Sect., 54,483-5 (1952). (63B) Yamamoto, Y., J . Chem. SOC.Japan, 54,485-7 (1951). (64B) Yamamoto, Y., et al., Ibid., 54, 701-4 (1951) (65B) Zeegers, J., Chem. Eng. Sci., 2,74-87 (1953). MEMBRANES

S.,and hlostad, E., Can. Patent 486,417 (Sept. 9.1952). (2C) Aihara, T., Shimatanic, T., and Kawamoto, K., Japan Patant 3705 (Oct. 27,1950). (3C) Arnold, M. and Seaborne, L., Ind. Chemist, 29, 295-8 (July 1953). (4C) Astrup, T., and Stage, A , , Acta Chem. Scand., 6,1302-3 (1952). (5C) Bergsma, F., Chent. Weekblad, 48, 361-4 (1952). (6C) Bugher, J., J. Gen. Physiol., 36, 431-48 (Jan. 20, 1953). (1C) Aannerund,

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INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY

(7C) Carr, C., Arch. Bwchem. and Biophys., 40, 286-94 (October 1952). (8C) Ibid., 43,147-56 (hlarch 1953). (9C) Conwell, J., U. S. Patent 2,631,974 (March 17, 1953). (lOC) Craig, R., and Haitung, E., Trans. Faraday Soc., 48, 964-9 (October 1952). (1lC) El-Shonry, H., and El-Din Znyan, S., J . Chem. Soc., 1953, pp. 384-6. (12C) Goldschmidt, S., and Stockl, E., Chem. Bel., 85, 630-4 (1952). (13C) Grimm, E., Proc. SOC.Ezptl. Biol. and Med., 83, 195-200 (June 1953). (14C) Helfferich, F., Z . Elekfrochem., 56, 947-52 (1952). (15C) Horvitz, G., U. S. Patent 2,618,592 (Nov. 18, 1952). (16’2) Janardan, P., Indian Pateiit 44,230 (hlay 24, 1952). (17C) Juda, W., and XlcRae, W., E. S.Patent 2,626,851 (April 28, 1953). (18C) Ibid., 2,636,852 (April 28, 1953). (1QC) Kalling, B., Sivander, IC., Sundgren-Wallden, R., and Wallden, s.,Swed. Patent 138,011 (Kov. 11, 1952). (2OC) Kollsman, P., Brit. Patent 694,223 (July 15, 1953). (21C) Landsberg, R., Z . physik. Chem., 199, 266-79 (1952). (22C) Manecke, G., Ibid., 201,l-15 (1953). (23C) Ibid., pp. 193-210 (December 1952). (24C) blanecke, 0. and Bonhoeffer, K., Z . Blektrochem., 55, 47581 (1951). (25C) Alizuguchi, J., Japan Patent 3485 (Oct. 30, 1950). (26C) Nagasawa, XI., and Kobatake, P., J . Phys. Chem.. 56,1017-24 (November 1952). (27C) Ono, F., and Toyama, Y., J . Chem. Soc. Japan, Ind. Chem. Sect., 53,359 (1950). (28C) Overbeek, J., and Van Est, W.,Rec. trav. chim., 71, 97-104 (January 1953). (29C) Patnode, H., and Wyllie, hl., U.S. Patent 2,614,976 (Oct. 26, 1952). (30C) Pitzer, E., U. S. Patent 2,607,809 (Aug. 19,1952). (31‘2) Sakakura, S., Japan Patent 4549 (Dec. 18,1950). (32C) Scatchard, G., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 75,2883 (June 20, 1953). (33C) Schindewolf, U., and Honhoeffer, K., 2. Elekfrochem., 57, 216-21 (1953). (34‘2) Schlogl, R., Ibid., 57,3,195-201 (1953). (35C) Schlogl, R., and Helfferich, F., Ibid., 56,644-8 (1952). (36C) Schmid, G , and Schwarz, H., Ibid., 55, 684-9 (1951) (37C) Seader, D., and Tobias, C., INU.ENG.CHEM.,44, 2207-11 (1952). (38C) Seiyama, T., J . C‘henz. Xoc. Japan, I n d . Chem. Sect., 53, 287-9 (1950). (39C) Ibid., pp. 335-6. (40’2) Steiner, W., and Weller, S.,U. S. Patent 2,597,907 (May 27, 1952). (41C) Suzuki, S., Japan Patent 3114 (Sept. 30, 1950). (42C) lbid., 3125 (Sept.30,1950). (43C) Vervelde, G., and Tendeloo, H., Rec. trau. chim., 72, 62-77 (1953). (44C) Wicker, D., U. S. Patent 2,631,973 (Msrch 17, 1953). (45C) Wiechers, S., and Van Hoek, C., Research, 6, 192-4 (May 1953). (46C) Winger, A,, Ebdamer, G., and Kunin, R., J . E’lectrochenz Soc., 100,178-84 (April 1953). WATER SOFTENING

(1D) Am. Teztile Reptr., 67, 13-15 (July 23, 1953). (2D) Anderson, E., U. S. Patent 2,627,503 (Feb. 3, 1953). (3D) Artz, N., Ibid., 2,626,238 (Jan. 20, 1953). (4D) Bird, P., Ibid., 2,627,502 (Feb. 3, 1953). (5D) Consumers Res. Bull., No. 7, 25-30 (February 1953). (6D) Elec. Merchandising, 85, KO.1, 1 7 1 4 (1953). (7D) Fitzpatrick, L.. P m e r Eng., 57, 70-3 (March 1953). (8D) Kittredge, A., Am. Power Confewnce, 15, 567-72 (1953). (9D) Larson, T., J . Am. Water Works Assoc., 45, 557-61 (1953). (10D) Lindsay, F., Can. Patent 492,460 (April 28, 1953). (11D) Michau, R., Euu, 38,191-4 (1951). (12D) Power Eng., 57,68,117-19 (March 1953). (13D) Rivers, M., and Linehan, K., T a p p i , 36, 130A-2A (February 1953). (14D) Roland, C., Can. Patent 488,149 (Nov. 18,1952). (15D) Southern Power and Ind., 70, 128 (October 1952). (16D) Thompson, J., Laundry-Age, 31, 59-63 (September 1952); 62-65 (October 1952). (17D) Thompson, J., and McGarvey, F., J . Am. Water Works Assoc., 45,145-52 (February 1953). (18D) Water Works Manual, 16,39-51 (1952). (19D) Weber, J., and Becker, D., Zucker, 5 , 508-12 (1952). (20D) Ziegelman, W., U. S. Patent 2,628,192 (Feb. 10, 1953).

Vol. 46, No. 1

DEIONIZATION

(1E) Benton, D., and Elton, G.. J . Chem. Soc., 1953, pp. 20962101. (2E) Butokofer, E., and Ammann, R., Pharm. Acta Helv., 27, 77-91 (1952). (3E) Chcm. Eng., 59, 233 (October 1952). (4E) Chem. Eng. News,30,5016-18 (Dec. 1, 1952). (5E) Chem. & Process Eng., 34, 108-112 (April 1953). (6E) Durant, W., and Blann, W., Can. Patent 491,657 (March 31, 1953). (7E) Gilwood, M., and Calmon, C., Am. Power Conf., 15, 611-20 (1953). (8E) Gllwood, Ll. and Calmon, C., Papet Trade J . , 136,22-5 (May 22,1953). (BE) Gilwood, hl., Calmon, C., and Greer, A , J . Am. Water Works Assoc., 44, Part I, 1057-64 (Kovembel 1952). (10E) Harlow, J., Bulletin o f N D.H.A., 38, 11-13; 20-2 (1952). (11E) Kiuchi, T., J . Sci. Sod Manure (Japan), 22, 197-8 (1952). (12E) Lalli, L., and Orlando, A , Riv. med. aeronaut., 15, 231-60 (1952). (13E) Lindsay, F., A m . Power Conf.,15,588-96 (1953). (14E) McCorkle, W., Nucleonics, 11, 21-25 (May 1953) (15E) Martin, O., Ind. Chemist, 28,448-50 (October 1952). (16E) Morris, E., and Brune, C., Am. Power Conf., 15, 628-43 (1953). (17E) Niwa, .4., Japan Patent 350 (1950). ( N E ) Permutit Ltd., Australian Patent 17617/53. (19E) Ibid., 17875/53. (20E) Permutit Ltd., Chem. Processing, 1 6 , 4 3 4 (February 1953). (21E) Pouer Eng., 56,94 (August 1952). (22E) Sesson, A., Am. Power Conf.,15, 653-9 (1953). (23E) Southern Power and Znd., 70, 130 (October 1952). (24E) Ibid., p. 162. (25E) Stomerman, F., et al., P., Ani. Power Conf., 15, 621-7 (1953). (26E) Thompson, J., and McGarvey, F., Ibid., 15,597-610 (1953). (27E) Thompson, J., McGarvey, F., Wantz, J., Alling, S., Gilwood, hl., and Babb, D., Chem. Eng. Progr., 49, 341-8 (July 1953). 128E) Ibid., pp. 437-42 (August 1953). (29E) Turvolgyi, B., et al., Can. J . Technol., 31,168-71 (1963). (30E) U. S. Dept. of Interior, Bull. 228 (October 1952). (31E) U. S. Printing Office, “Hearings before Subcommittee on Irrigation and Rerlamation of Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs,” 82nd Congress, June 19, 20, 22, 1951, and March 11.1952. BIOCHEMICAL SEPARATIONS

(1F) rimes, B., Mitchell, H., and Jlitchell, hl., J . A m . Chem. Soe.,

75,1015-18 (March 3,1953). (2F) dnyas-Weiss, F., Ezperientia, 9, 64-65 (February 1953). (3F) Baker, C., and Sober, H., J. Am. Chem. SOC.,75, 4058 (August 1953). (4F) Ibid., pp. 4058-60. (5F) Barry, P., and James, A., J . Chem. SOC.,1952, pp. 3340-5. (6F) Hernhard, A , , and Rosenbloom, I,., Science, 118, 114-15 (July 24,1953). (7F) Boardman, N., and Paitridge, S.,Nature, 171, 208-10 (Jan. 31, 1953). (8F) Bostrom, H., and Manseon, B., Acta Chem. Scaiid., 6, 155961 (1952). (9F) Brink, N., Boxer, G., Jelinek, V., Kuehl, F., Richter, J., and Folkers, K., J. Am. Chem. SOC.,75, 1960-2 (1953). (10F) Brown, D., and Todd, A,, J . Chem. SOC.,1953, pp. 2040-9. (11F) Burianek, J., Listy Cukracar., 67, 255-6 (1951). (12F) Busch, H. and Potter, Y,, J . Bid. Chem., 198, 71-7 (September 1952). (13F) Carlo, P., and Mandel, H., Ibid., 201, 343-7 (March 1953). (14F) Carsten, hl., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 74, 5954-9 (December 1952). (15F) Carsten, M., and Cannon, R., Ibid., 74, 5950-4 (December 1952). (16F) Chambers, AT., Zill, P., and Noggle, G., J . Am. Phnrm. Assac.. 41,4614 (1952). (17F) Crokaert, R., et al., Bull. SOC.Chim. Biol.,33, 1209-13 (1951). (18F) Distelano, V., and Neuman, W.,,I. Biol. Chem., 200, 75963 (February 1953). (19F) Eidinoff, hf., et al., Ibid., 199,511-16 (December 1952). (20E) Gardell, S., Acta Chem. Scand., 7, 207-15 (1953). (21F) Groth, D., hlueller, G., and LePage, G., J . Bid. Chem., 199, 389-91 (November 1952). (22F) Hirs,C., Moore, S., and Stein, W., Ibid., 200,493-506 (February 1953). (23F) Hogstrom, G., Acta Chem. Scand., 7, 45-50 (1953). (24F) Housmann, W., and Craig, L.. J . Biol. Chem., 197, 405-19 (September 1952).

January 1954

INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY

(25P') Hulme, -4., Biochem. J . (London), 53, 337-40 (1953). !26F) Ilulme, A., Nafure, 171,610-11 (April4,1953). (27F) Hulme, A., and Arthington, W., Ibid., 170, 659-60 (Oct. 18, 1952). (28F) Jorpes, J., and Mutt, V., Ibid., 172, 124 (July 18, 1953). (29F) Kantor, N., Levine, J., and Fishbach, H., Antibiotics & Chemotherapy, 1,586-7 (1951). (30F) Khym, J., and Cohn, W., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 1153-6 (March 5,1953). !31F) Kuehl, F., Meisinger, M.,Brink, S . , and Folkers, K., Ibid., 75, 1955-9 (April 20, 1953). (32P) Lewis, U., Tappan, D., and Elvehjem, G., J . Bid. Chem., 199, 517-30 (December 1952). ;33F) Lien, O., and Greenberg, D.. Ibid., 200, 367-71 (January 1953). (34F) Margolisch, E., Nature, 170, 1014-15 (Dec. 13, 1952). (35F) Merck and Co., Brit. Patent 692,922 (June 17,1953). l36F) Mommaerts, W., J . Biol. Chem., 198, 469-75 (September 1952). (37F) Noggle, G., and Zill, L., Arch. Riochem. and Biophys., 41, 21-8 (November 1952). !ask') Partridge, 8., I.ntern. Congr. Biochem. Abstr. of Communs., 1st Congr. Cambridge, Engl., 1949, 137-9. (39E') Phillips, J., and Pollard, A., Nature, 171, 41-2 (Jan. 3, 1953). (40F) Richter, J., et al., J . Am. Chcm. Soc., 75,1952-5 (1953). (41F) Roseman, S., Moses, F., Ludowiex, J., and Dorfman. A , . .I. Bid. Chem., 203,213-25 (July 1953). (421.') Schmid, K., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 60-8 (January 5, 1953). (431-') Schwert, R., and Cheslock, K., J . B i d . Chem., 199, 249-56 (December 1952). :441r) Shewan, J . , Fletcher, L., Partridge, S., and Brimley, R., J. Sci. Food Agr., 3,384-98 (September 1953). i45Y) Shive, W., C . S. Patent2,628,186 (Feb. 10, 1953). ,(46F) Smissman, E., Sharpe, R., Aycock, B., Van Temelen, E., and Peterson, W., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 75,2020-31 (May 6, 1953). (471:) Stadtanan, E., and Kornberg, A , , J. B i d . Chem., 203, 47-54 (July 1953). (481rj Stein, W.. Ibid., 201,35-58 (March 1953). (491.') Takayoma, Y., and Iwanarit, R., Japan Patent 6433 (Oct. 17. 1951). (50li) Thompson, A., Nature. 169,495-6 (1952). 151F) Tinker, F., Stribley, R., and Kcnnedy, J., U.S.Patent 2,650, 166 (Aug. 25,1953). (521;') Underwood, G., and Deatherage, F., Food Research, 17, 42532 (1952). (5319 Verdier, C. H. de, Acta Chein. Scand., 7, 196-200 (1953). (54F) Wall, J., Anal. Chem., 25, 950-53 (June 1953). (5517) White, E., J. Am. Chenz. Soc., 75, 257-9 (Jan. 20, 1953). (56F) White, W., and Fierce, N., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 246-6 (Jan. 5,1953). (571') Wiklander, L., Kgl. Lantbruks-Hogskol. Ann., 18, 154-6 (1951). (5817) Williams, B., and Wender, S., J . A m . Chem. Soc., 74, 4372~-3 (Sept. 5,1952). (59F) Ibid., pp. 4919-5021 (Dec. 5, 1952). 160P) Zatman, L., Kaplan, N., and Colowick, S., J . Riol. Chem., 200, 197-212 (January 1953). (61F) Zill, L., Khym, J., and Chenige, G., J. A m . C h e m Soc., 75, 1339-42 (March 20,1953). RECOVERY, PURIFICATION, PREPARATION, AND ANALYSIS (IG) Abrams, A,, and Borsook, H., J . Bid. Chem., 198, 205--14

(September 1952). (2G) Achlender, E., Fette u. Seifcn, 54, KO.3, 165-7 (1952). (3G) Activit, Brit. Patent 600,528 (April 12, 1948-reprinted). (4G) Adams, P., and Talbert, R., J . Am. Chem. Soc.. 74, 6272-3 (Dec. 20,1952). (5G) Ahlen, L., and Samuelsoii, O., And. Chem., 25, 12633-4 (*4ugust 1953). (6G) Akabori, S., Japan Patent 27 (1950). (7G) Ibid., 881 (Feb. 23,1951). (8G) Ibid., 426 (Feb. 13,1952). (9G) Alexander, G., J. Am. Chens. Soc., 74, 2887-8 (June 20, 1953). (10G) Austerweil, G., Compt. rend., 234, 1289-91 (195'2). ( I 1G) Austerweil, G., and Delort-Stechenko, J., Ibid., 235, 12524 (November 1952). (12G) Baddiley, J., Buchanan, J., and Thain, E., J. Chem. Soc.. 1953, pp. 1944-6. (13G) Baddiley, J., and Thain, E., Ibid., 1953, pp. 903-6. (14G) Baker, L., Gallagher, G., and McCutcheon, T., J . Am. Chem. SOC.,75,2493-5 (May 20,1953). (15G) Bartz, J., U. S. Patent 2,626,878 (Jan. 27, 1953). (16G) Beinert, H., VonKorff, R., and Green, D., J . Biol. Chem., 20.385-4000 (January 1953). '

123

117G) Bergman, W.,U. 8. Patent 2,G17,800 (Kov. 11, 1952). (18G) Bernstein, S., and MoGilvery, R., J . Biol. Chem., 198, 195-203 (September 1952). (19G) Bishop, 9., U. S. Patent 2,647,890 (Bug. 4, 1953). (20G) Bixler, G., et al., IND.ENG.CHEM.,45,692-705 (April 1953). (21G) Bost, R., and Quin, L., J. Org. Chem., 18, 368-61 (A4pril 1953). (22G) Brown, R., and Serro, R., J . Am. Chem. SOC.,75, 1040-2 (March 5.1953). (23G) Buchwalrl, H., and Wood, L., AnaE. Chem., 25, 664-5 (April 1953). (24G) Bucke, J., and Furier, F., Arzneintittel-Forsch., 3,l-10 (1953). (25G) Cantor, S., U. S. Patent 2,640,852 (June 2, 1953). (26G) Capt, Emile, Annuaire agr. Suisse (n.s.), 1, 1113-27 (1952). (27G) Carrasco, F., and Panigo, F., Anales real SOC. espufi. fis. y ~uim. (Madrid),47B, 751-8 (1951). (28G) Cartledge, G., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 74,6016-18 (Dec. 5, 1952). (29G) Cruess, W., Wines & Vines, 33, 20-1 (September 1952). (30G) Delindati, F., and Pellizxiari, A., Industria ital. conserue, 27,50-4 (1952). (31G) Du Pont, E. I., Brit. Patent 694,325 (Aug. 5, 1953). (32G) Durant, W., Can. Patent 494,182 (July 7, 1953). (33G) D u d , J., and Kurbatov, >I., J. Phys. Chem., 56, 982-4 (1952). (34G) Eimer, L., and hledalia, A., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 74, 1592-3 (1952). (350) Entel, J., Ruof, C., and Howard, H., Anal. Chem., 25, 616-18 (April 1953). (36G) Freund, H., and hliner, J., Ibid., 25, 564-7 (April 1953). (37G) Gabrielson, G., and Samuelson, O., Acta Chem. Scatid., 6,70843 (1952). (38G) Garrett, O., Food Eng., 25,61,141 (July 1953). (39G) Gayle, F., Can. Patent 492,767 (May 12, 1953). (40G) Geniu, G., Lait, 31,511-18 (1953). (41G) Gingold, K., Rochow, E., Seyfarth, D., Smith, A., and West, R., J . Am. Chem. Soc.. 74,6306 (Dec. 20,1952). (42G) Grant, E., and Hilty, W., J . Am. Phurm. Assoc., 42, 150-2 (1953). (43G) Grundon, AI., Sauvage, G., and Bockelheide, V., J . A m . Chem. Soc., 75, 2541-5 (June 5, 1953). (44G) Guiitz, A., Chim.Anal., 32,34&8 (1950). (45G) Hale, D., Hawdon, A,, Jones, J., and Packham, D., J . Chwn. SOC.,1952, pp. 3503-9, (46G) Hartler, N., and Samuelson, O., Anal. Chim. Acta, 8, 130-3 (1953). (47G) Herr, W., Angew. Chem., 64,303-4 (June 7,1953). (48G) Hobbs, K., Can. Patent 488,178 (Nov. 18, 1952). (49G) Hoffman, D., and Martin, D., J . Phys. Chem., 56, 1097 1101 (December 1952). (50G) Huffman, E., and Iddings, G., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 74,4714-15 (Sept. 20,1952). (5lG) Huffman, E., and Oswalt, R., U. 5.Patent 2,636,044 (April 21,1953). (52G) Iler, R., J. Phys. Chem., 56, 1086-9 (Debember 1952). (53G) Iler, R., and Walter, F., U. S. Patent 2,631,134 (March 10, 1953). (54G) Ibid., 2,650,200 (Aug. 2,1953). (55G) Isaac, N., and Picciotto, R., Nature, 171, 742-3 (April 25, 1953). (56G) Jindra, A., and Motl, O., ~eeskoslov. Farmacie, 1, 632-7 (1952). (57G) Jindra, A., and Renta, J.,Ibid., 1,625-30 (1952). (58G) Jindra, A,, and Sipos, F., Chem. Listy, 44,235-8 (1950). (59G) Joslyn, M.,Lukton, M.,and Cane, A, Food Technol., 7, 2& 9 (January 1953). (BOG) Kiermeier, F., 2. Lebensm.-Untersuch. u. -Forsch., 95, 85-9 (1952). (61G) King, W., and Garner, C., J. Am. Chem. SOC.,74, 553P.6 (Nov. 5,1952). (62G) Kistiakowsky, G., and Rosenberg, A,, Ibid., 74, 5020-5 (Oct. 20,1952). (63G) Klosterman, H., and Smith, F., Ibid., 74, 5336-9 (Nov. 5, 1952). (64G) Kraus, K., and Moore, G., J . AWLChem. Soc., 75, 1457-60 (March 20.1953). (65G) lbid., pp,, 1460-2. (66G) Kraus, K., and Nelson, F., Ibid., 75, 3273-4 (July 5, 1953). 167G) . . Kraus. K.. Kelson. F.. and Baxter, S., Ibid., 75, 2768-70 (June 5,1953). (68G) Laidlaw, R., and Wylam, C.,J. Chem. Soc., 1953, pp. 567-71. (69G) Leden, I., Svenslc Kem. Tidskr., 64, 145-9 (1952). (70G) LeGloaheic, V., U. S. Patent 2,624,677 (Jan. 16, 1953). (71G) Levi, L., and Farmils, C., Can. J. Chem., 30, 793-9 (October 1952).

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124

(72G) Levy, G., Caldes, U., and Fergus, D., Anal. Chenb., 24, 1799-1803 (November 1952). ENQ.CHEM.,45,1782-3 (August 1953). (73G) Lewis, D., IND. (74G) Liggett, R., and Wimmer, E., U. S. Patents 2,640,849-50 (June 2,1953). (75G) Lindgren, B., and Sarden, U., Acta Chem. Scand., 6, No. 1, 91-5 (1952). (76G) Lister, B., and McDonald, L., J . Chem. SOC.,1952,4315-30. (77G) McBurney, C., U. S. Patent 2,635,061 (April 14, 1953). (78G) McCutcheon, T., and Schuele, W., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 1845-6 (April 20,1953). (79G) Marshall, C., and Walklin, A,, Food Technol., 6, 229-34 (June 1952). (80G) Meijer,H., U. S. Patent2,654,177 (Aug. 25, 1953). (81G) Monsanto, Austrian Patent 150,542 (Nov. 25, 1949). (82G) Mori, F., and Meguro, K., J . Chem. SOC.J a p a n , 73, 907-9 (1952). (830) Motl, O., & s k o s h . Farmacie, 1, 630-2 (1952). (84G) Nagata, A., Ebara, M., Igarashi, S., and Nobori, H., J . Chem. SOC.Japan, I n d . ChPm. Sect., 54, 338-9 (1951). (85G) Naumann, C., Brauwissenschaft, 1952, pp. 10&6. (86G) Newkirk, W., Hopke, A., U. S. Patent 2,606,847 (Aug. 12, 1952). (87G) Niwa, A., Japan Patent 223 (1950). (88G) Ibid., 3333 (1950). (89G) Ongaro, D., Latte, 25,371-4 (1951). (90G) Osborne, J., U. S. Patent 2,622,097 (Dec. 16,1952). (91G) Otting, H., Chrysler, L., and Almy, E., Can. Patent 492,307 (April 21, 1953). (92G) Pearl, I., and Beyer, D., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 2630-3 (June 5,1953). (93G) Pfanstiel, R., and Iler, R., Ibid., 74, 6059-64 (Deo. 5, 1952). (94G) Radhakrishna, B., Anal. Chim. Acta, 6, 351-4 (1952). (95G) Ibid., 8,140-5 (1953). (96G) Reents, A., U. S. Patent 2,615,924 (Oct. 28, 1952). (97G) Ricketts, C., and Walton, K., Chemistry & Industry, No. 36, 869,871 (Sept. 6,1952). (98G) Samuelson, O., and Gabrielson, G., Acta Chem. SCand.3 6, 729-37 (1952). (99G) Sarnue1son~0 . t and Schrammi K - - Svensk Tidskr.* 637 307-11 (1951). (100G) Saunders, L., J . Chem. Soc., 1953, pp. 519-25. (101G) Schlubach, H., and Hauschildt, P., Ann. Chem., Justus Liebigs, 577,54-9 (July 1,1952). (l02G) Schlubach, H., Huchting, I., and Muller, H., Ibid., 577, 47-53 (July 1,1952). (103G) Schneider, F., et al., Zucker-Beih., 5,57-70 (1952). (104G) Scholten, W. A,, Dutch Patent 67,942 (June 15, 1951). (l05G) Sekino, M., Japan Patent 6712 (Oct. 29, 1951). (106G) Ibid., 7717 (Dec. 18,1951). (107G) Shah, H., and Bafna, S., Proc. 8th Ann. Convent. of Cane Sugar Tech. Assoc., 8 , 141-50 (1951). (108G) Soler, J., and June, A,, Inst. nacl. invest. agron. bol., 11, No. 25,429-43 ‘(December 1951). (109G) Stark. J.. and Goodban. A.. J . Am. Chem. Soc.. 74. 4966 (Oct. 5,’1952). (110G) Steinback, J., and Freisse, N., Anal. Ckem., 24, 1027-8 (June 1952). (111G) Sweet, R., et at., Ibid., 24, 952-5 (June 1952). (112G) Takakura, I., et al., Japan Patent 4367 (Aug. 8, 1951). (113G) Tannebaum, S., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 1754-6 (April 1953). (114G) Tatur, H., Przemysl Chem., 7,627-31 (1951). (115G) Trombe, F., and Loriers, J., Compt. rend., 236, 1567-9 (April20,1953). (116G) Unger, E., Smith, L., and Willkie, H., U. S. Patent 2,641,543 (June 9,1953). (117G) Veis, A., J . Phys. Chem., 57, 189-94 (February 1953). (118G) Vickery, R., I n d . Chemist, 29,260-5 (June 1953). (119G) Vickery, R., J. Chem. Soc., 1952, pp. 4357-63. (12oG) Vlies, G. van der, Congr. intern. ind. agr., 8th Congr., Brussels, 1950, pp. 62-5. (121G) Wallace, E., and BIenn, J., U. S. Patent 2,628,986 (Feb. 17, 1953). (122G) Weber, J., and Becker, D., Zucker, 5,508-12 (1952). (123G) West, B.,J. Chem. Soc., 1952,pp. 3123-9. (124G) Wheelwright, E., and Spedding, F., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 2529-30 (May 20,1953). (125G) Whitaker, D., Arch, Biochem. and Biophys., 43, 253-68 (April 1953). (126G) White, L., and Secor, G., Ibtd., 43 (March 1953). (127G) Wiklander, L., Kgl. Lantbruks-Hogskol. Ann., 18, 154-62 (1951). (128G) Williams, B., and Wonder, S., Arch, Biochem. and Biophys., 43, 319-23 (1953). (129G) Williams. F., Nezuayko, M., and Weintritt, D., J . Phys. Chem., 57, 6-10 (January 1953). I

,

Vol. 46, No. 1

(130G) Winters, J., and Kunin, R., U. S. Patent 2,649,390 (Aug. 18, 1953). (l3lG) Wolfrom, M., and Anno, K., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 74, 5583-4 (Nov. 20,1952). (132G) Ibid., 75, 1038-9 (March 5, 1953). (133G) Wolfrom, M., Sutherland, F., and Schlamowitz, M., 74, 4883-6 (1952). .-..- ,. (134G) Woodward, J., Snell, R., and Kicholls, R., Can. Patent 495,248 (Aug. 11,1953). (135G) Zandona, 0. J., and Rippie, C. W., OiE Gas J., 51, 80-4 (1950). WASTE TREATMENT

(1H) Bliss, R., U. S. Patent2,628,165 (Feb. 10,1953). (2H) Bott, H., Kressman, T., and Spiers, H., Brit. Patent 685,712 (Jan. 7,1953). (3H) Electroplating, 6,3-9 (1953). (4H) Ibid., pp. 121-30. (5H) Fadgen, T., Proc. 7th I n d . V a s t e Conf., Purdue Univ. Eng. Bull. Extension Ser., No. 79, 24-32 (1962). (6H) Fadgen, T., Sewage and I n d . Wastes, 24, 1101-7 (1952). (7H) Fuchs, W., and Leyer, A., 2. Elektrochem., 59, 365-8 (June 1953). (8HI Geratner. F.. Ibid.. 57(3). 221-5 11953). (9H) Lattre, A., Bull. centre belge &de et document eaux (Lieoe), 7, 415-20 (1950-51). (10H) Mindler, A., Water & Sewage Works, 100, 288-90 (July 1953). (11H) Paulson, C., Metal Finishing, 50, No. 5, 48-50, 56 (1952). (12H) Stromquist, D., and Reents, A., Proc. 6th I n d . Waste Conf., Purdue Univ. Eng. Bull. Extension Ser., No. 76, 181-9 (1951). (13H) Tyler, R., Maske, W., and Westin, XI., Ibid., 135-40 (1951). (14H) Vincent, D., Ibid., 35, 122-9 (1951). (15H) Walker, C., and Zabban, W., Plating, 40, 165-8 (1953). CATALYSIS

(11) Astle, M., asl low sky, J., and Etherington, R., IND. ENG.

CHEM.,44,2867-72 (1952). (21) Barker,G.,and White,R., Chem. Eng. Progr. Symposium Serirr, 4,75-90 (1952). (31) Bernhard, S., and Hammett, L., J . -4m. Chem. Soc., 75, 17981800 (April20,1953). (41) Boekalheide, V., et al., Ibid., 75, 2559-63 (June 5, 1953). (51) Durr, G., Compt. rend., 235, 1314-16 (Nov. 24, 1952). (61) Ibid., 236,1571-3 (April20,1953). (71) Dum, G., and Mastagli, P., Ibid., 235, 1038-40 (Nov. 3, 1952). (81) Grummett, O., and Marsh, D., J . Am. Oil Chemist’ Soc., 30, 21-5 (January 1953). (91) Lagrange, G., Mastagli, P., and Zafiriadis, Z., Compt, rend, 236,616 (Feb. 9,1953). (101) Mastagli, P., Austerweil, G., and Dubois, E., Ibid., 232, 2848-9 r\ Li nucu?r , .

(111) Mastagli, P., and Floc’h, A,, Ibid., 237,713-14 (1953). (121) Mastagli, P., Floc’h, A,, and Durr, G., Ibid., 235, 1402-3 (1952). (131) Mastagli, P., et al., Bull. SOC. chim. France, 1953, pp. 693-5. (141) Mastagli, P., Zafiriadis, Z., and Swistak, E., Compt. rend., 236,232&6 (June 15,1953). (151) Paulson, J., Deatherage, F., and Amy, E., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 75,2039-41 (May 5,1953). (161) Saletan, D., and White, R., Chem. Eng. Progr. Sympoaium Series, 4,59-74 (1952). (171) Schlenk, H., and Holman, R., J . A n . Oil Chemists’ Soc., 30, 1 0 3 4 (1953). (181)Wadman, W., J . Chem. Soc., 1952, pp. 3051-5. (191) Wedeauist. 9.. Arkiv K e m i , 4,429-32 (1952). i20Ij Weinstock, J., and Boekelheide, V., J . Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 2546-50 (June 5,1953). ION E X C H A N G E RESIN SYNTHESIS

(1J) Alm, A., Can. Patent 486,315 (Sept. 9,1952). (2J) Austerweil, G. (L’aux des chemins de fer et de l’hdustrie), .Fr. Patent 973,179 (Feb. 8,1951). (35) Austerweil, G., and Palland, R., Bull. SOC. chim. France, 1953, 678-80. (45) Australian Official J. of Patents 23, 26 (Jan. 22, 1953)Australian Patent 149,590 (Jan. 9,1950). (5J) Barnes, R., Can. Patent 486,306 (Sept. 9, 1952). (6J) Bauman, W., and MoKellar, R., U. S. Patent 2,614,099 (Oct. 14,1952). (75) Bodamer, G., Can. Patent 493,041 (May 19, 1953). (85)Ibid., 493,562 (June 9,1953). (9J) Ibid.,493,563 (June 9,1953).

January 1954

I N D U S T R I A L A N D E N GI N E E R I N G C H E M I S T R Y

(1OJ) Bond, G., U. S. Patent 2,617,712 (Nov. 11, 1952). ( l l J ) Bufna, S., Psi, M., and Shah, H., J . Sci. I n d . Research ( I n d i a ) , 11, No. 4,134-6 (1952). (12J) Butler, G., and Benjamin, B., U. S. Patent 2,636,019 (April

21,1953). (135) Butler, G., and Bunch, R., Ibid., 2,611,768 (Sept. 23, 1952). (14J) Can. TeTtileJ., 70,75 (May22,1953). (15J) Cassidy, H., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S., 38, 934-7 (1952). (16J) Chem. Week, 71, 34 (October li, 1952). (17J) Council Scientific and Ind. Res. Indian, 43, 359 (Sept. 10, 1952). (18J) Ibid., p. 827. (19J) D'Alelio, G., U. 8.Patent2,623,013 (Dec. 23, 1952). (20J) Ibad., 2,628,193 (Feb. 10,1953). (215) Ibtd., 2,631,127 (March 10, 1953). (225) Ibid., 2,644,801 (July 7,1953). (235) Ibid., 2,645,621 (July 14,1953). (245) Daul, G., and Reid, J , Zbid., 2,609,360 (Sept. 2, 1952). (25J) Ibid., 2,610,953 (Sept. 16, 1952). (26J) Day, H., Can. Patent490,581 (Feb. 17,1953). (275) Ibid., 495,170 (Aug. 11,1953). (28J) Dedek, J., Congr. intern. ind. agr., 8th Congr., Brussels, 1950, 70-96. (29J) De La Roche, B., and Perot, G., Bull. SOC. chim. France, No. 3, 307-9 (March 1953). (303) Directie van de Staatsmijnen in Limberg, Brit. Patent 695,232 (Aug. 5,1953). (31J) Ibid., Dutch Patent 70,658 (June 16, 1952). (32J) Dow, British Patent 679,850 (Sept. 24,1952). (333) Ibid., 679,851 (Sept. 24,1952). (34J) Ibid.. 679.853 (Seot. 24.1952). i35Jj Ibid.; 683,399 (Nov. 26,1952). (365) Ibid., 683,400 (Nov. 26, 1952). (375) Ezrin, M., Updegraff, I., and Cassidy, H., J . A m . Chem. SOC., 75,1610-14 (April 5,1953). (38J) Feinland, R., Baldwin, D., and Gregor, H., J . Polymer Sci., 10,445-7 (April 1953). (39J) Gregor, H., Taifer, M., Citarel, L., and Becker, E., IND. ENQ. CHEM., 44,2834-9 (1952). (40J) Guthrie, J., Ibid., 44,2187-9 (1952). (415) Gutus, E., U. S. Patent 2,645,627 (June 14,1953) (425) Haagen, K., 2. Elektrochem., 57 (3), 178-83 (1953). (435) Hensted, G., and Bauman, W., Can. Patent 487,586 (Oct 28, 1952). (445) Herkenkoff, E., U. S. Pat. 2,642,514 (June 16, 1953). (455) Hwa, J., Ibid., 2,630,427 (March 3,1953). (46J) Ibid., 2,630,428 (March 3,1953). (47J) Zbid., 2,630,429 (March3. 1953) (48J) Inukai, Z., and Nishida, X., Japan Patent 2867 (Sept. 36,1950). (49J) Juda, W., Jones, G., and Altman, N., U. S. Patent 2,628,946 (Feb. 17,1953). (505) Kawabe, H., and Yanagita, M., Sci. Research Inst. (Tokyo), Repts. Sei. Researchlnst. Japan, 28,264-74 (1952). (51J) Kressman, T., Brit. Patent 693,166 (June 24, 1953). (525) Kressman, T., and Akeryd, E., Ibid., 694,778 (July 28,1953). (53Y) Lundberg, L., U. S. Patent 2,610,156 (September 1952). (54J) IbkZ,, 2,614,085 (Oct. 14,1952). (555) Ibid.. 2.620.315 (Dec. 2.1952). i56Jj McBu&ey,'C.,ibid., 2,613,200 (Oct. 7, 1952). (575) Ibid., 2,629,710 (Feb. 24, 1953). (58J) &Master, E., Can. Patent 482,813 (May 12, 1953). (595) &Master, E., U. S. Patent 2,616,877 (Nov. 4,1952). (60J) McMaster. E.. Wheaton. R.. and Skidmore, J., Ibid., 2,632,000 (March 17,1953). (61J) hlanecke, G., Z . Elekt~oche?n.,57,189-94 (1953). (62J) Motoyama, T., and Okamura, S., Chem. High Polyme78 ( J a p a n ) ,8,326-8 (1951). (63J) Nagasawa, F., et al., Japan Patent 6869 (Oct. 30, 1951). (64J) Ibid., 1043 (March 25,1952). (65J) Nishida, K., and Inukai, Z., Ibid., 1640 (May 9,1952). (66J) Oda, R., and Shimizu, H., Japan Patent 4366 (Aug. 8, 1951). (675) Oda, R., Shimizu, H., and Tanabe, T., J . Chem. S O C Japan, . I d . Chem. Sec., 54,286 (1951). (683) Permutit Ltd., Australian Patent 146,297 (April 4, 1949). (695) Scott, M., and Jackson, E., U. S. Patent 2,600,698 (June 17, 1952). (705) Seal, K., Pharm. J . , 168,343-4 (1952). (71J) Sekino, M. et al., Japan Patent 1401 (April22,1952). (725) Societa Lavorazioni Organiche Inorganiche S.L.O.I., Ital. Patent 463,406 (May 4,1951). (735) Stults, F., Moulton, R., and McCarthey, J., Chem. Eng. Progr. Symposium Series, 4,38-50 (1952). (745) Thurston, J., Can. Patent 486,305 (Sept. 9,1952). (765) Ibid., 492,205 (April 21,1953). (76J) Vialatout, F. M., U. S. Patent 2,622,064 (Dec. 16, 1952). (775) Westermark, T., Acta Chem. Scand., 6. No. 8, 1194-9 (1952).

125

(785) Wheaton, R., and Harrington, D., U. S. Patent 2,642,417 (June 16, 1953). M E D I C A L APPLICATIONS

(1K) Bast, M., Am. Practitioner and Dig. Treatment, 3,274-9 (1952). (2K) Bersin, H., 2. Elektrochem., 57,213-15 (1953). (3K) Carey, H., J . Obstet. Gynacol. Brit. Empire, 59, 67-76 (1952). (4K) Davies, R., and Kornberg, H., Nature, 170, 979 (Dec. 6, 1952). (5K) Dow Diamond, 16, No. 1,16-19 (1953). (6K) Elkinton, J., el al.,Circulation, 5 , 747-53; 842-50 (1952). (7K) Fourman, P., Brit. Med. J., 1,544-6 (.March 1953). (8K) Gennes, L. de, Bricaire, H., Courjant, J., and Deschamps, H.. Presse mdd.. 60.44. 964-8 (June 25. 10*9' (9K) Greenman, L., Wei&rd,'F., and'Danowaki, T., Am. J. Med. Sci., 225,l-7 (January 1953). (10K) Harthon, J., and Sigroth, K.,Acta Med. Scand., 144, 230-6 .""1,.

f10.53) ,-"--,.

(11K) Heming, A,, U. 5. Patent 2,611,730 (Sept. 23,1952). ""I. (12K) Lillv. Eli. Brit. Patent 692.897 (June 17. 19*Q\ (13K) McHardy, G., Browne, D.; Ward, S., and Bechtold, J., Southern Med. J., 45,63641 (July 1952). (14K) Martin, G., Alpert, S., and Sullivan, M., Proc. Soe. Ezpll. Biol. Med., 82, 373-5 (March 1953). (15K) Marty, B., Kohlstaldt, M., Helmer, O., Circulation, 5,524,533 (Ami11952). (16K) Orbegozo, J., Rev. clbn. EspaA., 41,421-7 (June 1951). (17K) Payne, W., and Wilkinson, R., Lancet, 261, 101-4 (July 21, 1951). (ISK) Permutit Ltd., Brit. Patent 684,575 (Dec. 17, 1952). (19K) Topper, E., D'Amico, J., and Bregman, J., Drug and Allied I n d . , 39,9-10 (May 1953). (20K) Zellstofffabrik Waldhof, Brit. Patent 682,801 (Nov. 19,1952). APPARATUS, PROCESSES, AND TEST PROCEDURES

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