JCE Resources for Chemistry: Health and Wellness - Journal of


Oct 1, 2004 - JCE Resources for Chemistry: Health and Wellness ... demonstration, experiment, informational, software/video, Web tutorial, or WebWare ...
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Chemical Education Today

NCW 2004: Health and Wellness

JCE Resources for Chemistry: Health and Wellness

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by Erica K. Jacobsen 7:45 a.m. Wake up. Take daily multi-vitamin. Make note to buy echinacea today to try to stave off developing cold. Check whether any sunscreen left for upcoming weekend. 8:15 a.m. Decide on oatmeal as healthier choice for breakfast instead of sugar-coated cereal. 8:45 a.m. Brush teeth with fluoride toothpaste. Have daughter take next dose of antibiotic to clear up lingering ear infection.

One hour of the day gone. How many instances do you see of an everyday life interacting with chemistry in order to preserve health and wellness? Many actions we perform without thinking, which can be as simple as eating or reaching for a pain reliever from the medicine cabinet, are tied in to chemistry. The American Chemical Society has capitalized on this ubiquitousness with their chosen theme for National Chemistry Week (NCW) 2004: “Health and Wellness”. As you will see from the selection of JCE resources presented in this resource paper, the theme applies to a broad range of topics, from drugs and medical applications, to nutrition and obesity, to the use of protective sunscreens and cavity-preventing toothpastes. As has been done with past NCW themes (1), this annotated bibliography collects the best that past issues of JCE have to offer for use with this year’s National Chemistry Week. Each item has been characterized as an activity, calculation, demonstration, experiment, informational, software/video, Web tutorial, or WebWare item; several fit more than one classification. The most recent articles are listed first. An indication of the levels the article may serve are included. Articles that appeared adaptable to other levels, but not designed explicitly for those levels, are labeled “poss. h.s.”, “poss.

A representation of HIV-1 protease, an enzyme that helps to spread HIV through the human body. Protease inhibitors, such as the one shown bound to the center of the protease, are used in the treatment of HIV. From Chemistry Comes Alive! Volume 5.

elem.”, and so forth. Since all references are to Journal articles, they appear in abbreviated form, including only year, volume, page. W

Special JCE Online Supplements

The full text of all articles described in this resource paper are available to subscribers in this issue of JCE Online. Literature Cited 1. Jacobsen, E. K. J. Chem. Educ. 2003, 80, 1106–1109; 2002, 79, 1162–1167; 2001, 78, 1316–1321; 2000, 77, 1256–1267.

Erica K. Jacobsen is Associate Editor, Secondary School Chemistry, JCE; [email protected]

✰ Resources for Chemistry: Health and Wellness

Penicillin, “the 20th century wonder drug”, is one of the fully manipulable Chime molecules found at JCE Online. From JCE Webware collection.

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Calories—Who’s Counting? JCE Editorial Staff; 2004, 81, 1440A. Activity; h.s./coll. Students determine and compare the energy content of cashews and marshmallows. Data are collected by burning the food beneath a metal soft drink can that contains water and measuring the resulting temperature change of the water.

Students burn a cashew The Bisphosphonate Story: as part of a calorimetric From Detergents to Bone Classroom Activity. Disease. Williams, K. R.; 2004, 81, 1406. Informational; h.s./coll. Summarizes the history of the biomedical uses of bisphosphonates, as originally discussed in a 1978 JCE article. Also describes the current uses of bisphosphonates.

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J. J. Jacobsen, J. Cunningham, E. K. Jacobsen

WebWare Featured Molecules. Coleman, W. F.; http:// www.JCE.DivCHED.org/JCEWWW/Features/MonthlyMolecules/ (accessed Aug 2004). WebWare; h.s./coll. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of the listed molecules are available at the above URL. Some are linked to articles in this paper. Nov 02: prophine and protoporphyrin; Dec 03: antiandrogen prostate cancer drugs; Oct 03: quinine; Jul 03: penicillin and vitamin B12; May 03: ascorbic acid and methylene blue; Mar 03: enantiomers of guaifenesin; Feb 03: acetaminophen and aspirin; Jul 04: enantiomer specificity in pharmaceuticals; Oct 04: sunscreens.

Chemical Education Today

photo by J. J. Jacobsen, E. K. Jacobsen, A. Trantow

Research Advances: Bio-Bar-Codes Speed DNA Detection; Treating Cystic Fibrosis From the Spice Rack; Salmonella versus Salsa. King, A. G.; 2004, 81, 1386. Informational; h.s./coll. Describes recent research advances such as using a spice to treat cystic fibrosis, and an ingredient in salsa juice to help battle Salmonella.

The development of fluoride toothpaste was a great advance in helping people maintain healthy teeth.

Dentrifice Fluoride. Rakita, P. E.; 2004, 81, 677. Informational; h.s./coll. Describes the history and use of fluoride compounds to maintain healthy teeth.

term medical devices from the body’s defense systems. Discusses its use in contact lenses and heart surgery.

Carbon Dioxide Flooding: A Classroom Case Study Derived from Surgical Practice. Kerber, R. C.; 2003, 80, 1437. Informational; h.s./coll. Describes the use of CO2 in heart surgery and how it can illustrate gas density, solubility, acid–base reactions, and buffering. Sailing on the “C”: A Vitamin Titration with a Twist. Sowa S.; Kondo, A. E.; 2003, 80, 550. Experiment; h.s./coll. Students determine the vitamin C content of citrus fruits by redox titration and decide which fruit they would take on an 18th century sea journey to prevent scurvy. Subject of letter to the editor: Choice of Citrus Fruit. Behrman, E. J.; Behrman, C. F.; 2004, 81, 196. Arsenic: Not So Evil After All? Lykknes, A.; Kvittingen, L.; 2003, 80, 497. Informational; h.s./coll. Presents several examples of the medical uses of arsenic, from 2000 B. C. E. to the present day. Alka Seltzer Fizzing—Determination of Percent by Mass of NaHCO3 in Alka Seltzer Tablets. Chen, Y.-H.; Yaung, J.-F.; 2002, 79, 848. Experiment; h.s./coll. Students analyze the NaHCO3 content of Alka Seltzer tablets by measuring weight loss as tablets react with vinegar. Illustrates limiting reagents. Blending in with the Body. Lewis, A. L.; Driver, M.; 2002, 79, 321. Informational; h.s./coll. Describes the chemistry of a biomaterial used to camouflage long-

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A Simple Preparative Method To Evaluate Total UV Protection by Commercial Sunscreens. Fujishige, S.; Takizawa, S.; Tsuzuki, K.; 2001, 78, 1678. Experiment; h.s./coll. Describes the use of commercial cellulose membrane to obtain UV absorption spectra for sunscreens without pretreatment and extraction. Blood-Chemistry Tutorials: Teaching Biological Applications of General Chemistry Material. Casiday, R. E.; Holten, D.; Krathen, R.; Frey, R. F.; 2001, 78, 1210. Informational/Web Tutorial; coll./poss. h.s. Describes four tutorials (with corresponding Web sites) that deal with chemical processes in the blood. Combinatorial Synthesis and Discovery of an Antibiotic Compound. An Experiment Suitable for High School and Undergraduate Laboratories. Wolkenberg, S. E.; Su, A. I.; 2001, 78, 784. Experiment; h.s./coll. Introduces students to combinatorial chemistry as applied to drug discovery. Students synthesize libraries, screen for antibiotic activity, and identify active compounds. Putting UV-Sensitive Beads to the Test. Trupp, T.; 2001, 78, 648A. Activity; h.s./coll./poss. elem. Students investigate the properties of UV-sensitive beads and use the beads to compare sunscreens.

UV-sensitive beads can be used to compare the effectiveness of sunscreens.

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photos by E. K. Jacobsen and J. J. Jacobsen

The September 2001 cover of JCE shows a hemoglobin molecule with heme groups on a background of red blood cells. The issue also described a set of four tutorials about chemical processes in the blood [ JCE 2001, 78, 1210].

Modeling the Drug Discovery Process: The Isolation and Biological Testing of Eugenol from Clove Oil. Miles, W. H.; Smiley, P. M.; 2002, 79, 90. Experiment; h.s./coll. Students perform an extraction on clove oil and assay its antiseptic behavior, illustrating the principles of modern drug discovery.

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✰ Resources for Chemistry: Health and Wellness, continued The action of both Clinitest tablets and strips helps diabetics to monitor levels of glucose in their urine. From Chemistry Comes Alive! Volume 5.

Chemistry Comes Alive! Vol. 5. Jacobsen, J. J.; Johnson, K.; Moore, J. W.; Trammell, G.; 2001, 78, 423. [Available from JCE Software] Software/video; h.s./coll. QuickTime video is available for the following: “Clinitest Tablet is Added to Glucose”; “Clinistrip Test of Glucose is Demonstrated”. Shows the action of Clinitest tablets and Clinistrips sold to monitor the level of glucose in the urine of diabetics. “HIV-1 Protease: An Enzyme at Work”. Series of movies that discusses HIV-1 protease and drugs that target it in the treatment of HIV. Old Yet New—Pharmaceuticals from Plants. Houghton, P. J.; 2001, 78, 175. Informational; h.s./coll. Discusses the use of plants as medicines over the last two centuries. Illustrates the value of interdisciplinary research. Discovery and Early Uses of Iodine. Rosenfeld, L.; 2000, 77, 984. Informational; h.s./coll. Describes the history of the discovery of iodine and its early medicinal use. UV Catalysis, Cyanotype Photography, and Sunscreens. Lawrence, G. D.; Fishelson, S.; 1999, 76, 1199. Experiment; h.s./coll. Students make cyanotype paper that can be used to create photographic images and to test the efficiency of sunscreens. Photodynamic Therapy: The Sensitization of Cancer Cells to Light. Miller, J.; 1999, 76, 592. Informational; h.s./coll. Describes the use of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment.

Heat Capacity, Body Temperature, and Hypothermia. Kimbrough, D. R.; 1998, 75, 48. Demonstration/Informational; h.s./coll. Application of the role that water’s high heat capacity plays in the maintenance and disruption of body temperature, and its connection to hypothermia.

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The Spectrophotometric Analysis and Modeling of Sunscreens. Walters, C.; Keeney, A.; Wigal, C. T.; Johnston, C. R.; Cornelius, R. D.; 1997, 74, 99. Experiment; h.s./coll. Students measure the absorption of ultraviolet light using sunscreens. Includes a molecular modeling extension. Subject of letter to the editor: The Spectrophotometric Analysis and Modeling of Sunscreens. Underwood, G.; MacNeil, J.; 2001, 78, 453. The Photochemistry of Sunscreens. Kimbrough, D. R.; 1997, 74, 51. Informational; h.s./coll. Discusses the chemistry of sunscreens and its relation to the interaction of light energy with molecules, molecular excited states, and concentration (absorption). The Analysis of a Drug Circular as a First-Day Assignment for Freshman Chemistry. A Jump Start for the Semester. Millevolte, A. J.; 1995, 72, 1085. Activity; h.s./coll. Students receive a copy of a drug circular and answer a list of questions about the drug. Calorie Content of Foods: A Laboratory Experiment Introducing Measuring by Calorimeter. Cohen, B. L.; Schilken, C. A.; 1994, 71, 342. Experiment; coll./poss. h.s. Describes a bomb calorimetry experiment to determine the calorie content of food. Discusses corrections for digestibility in the body.

Several JCE experiments allow students to investigate the absorption of UV light by skin-protecting sunscreen products.

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photo by E. K. Jacobsen and J. J. Jacobsen

Saving Your Students’ Skin. Undergraduate Experiments That Probe UV Protection by Sunscreens and Sunglasses. Abney, J. R.; Scalettar, B. A.; 1998, 75, 757. Experiment; h.s./coll. Students use absorption spectroscopy to investigate sunscreens and sunglasses samples.

Medicines and Drugs from Plants. Agosta, W. C.; 1997, 74, 857. Informational; h.s./coll./poss. elem Discusses the history and future of the use of plants as sources of medicines.

Chemical Education Today

NCW 2004: Health and Wellness

✰ Resources for Chemistry: Health and Wellness, continued A Simple Method for Demonstrating the Measurement of Blood Pressure. Corkern, W. H.; Hughes, E. Jr.; checked by Franz, D. A.; 1994, 71, 157. Demonstration; h.s./coll. Illustrates how a water-containing U-tube manometer can measure blood pressure, and how to convert from mm H2O to mm Hg. Copper Precipitation in the Human Body: Wilson’s Disease. Csintalan, R. P.; Senozan, N. M.; 1991, 68, 365. Informational; h.s./coll. Discusses the symptoms and genetics of Wilson’s disease (a copper metabolism disorder) and the interesting discovery of a chemical used in its treatment.

A Well-Known Chemical Demonstration To Illustrate an Unusual Medical Mystery. Fenster, A. E.; Harpp, D. N.; Schwarcz, J. A.; checked by Glanville, J. O.; 1988, 65, 621. Demonstration; h.s./coll. Discusses a medical condition that caused blue skin and a demonstration to accompany a discussion of the condition. (See also: Greening the Blue Bottle. Wellman, W. E.; Noble, M. E.; 2003, 80, 537.) Helen M. Dyer, A Pioneer in Cancer Research. Roscher, N. M.; Nguyen, C. K.; 1986, 63, 253. Informational; h.s./coll. Describes the life and research of Helen M. Dyer, a pioneer in the field of cancer-related biochemistry.

photos by J. J. Jacobsen, E. K. Jacobsen, A. Trantow

Consumer Applications of Chemical Principles: Drugs. Hill, J. W.; Jones S. M.; 1985, 62, 328. Informational; h.s./coll. Provides short notes on various drugs that help illustrate chemical principles, especially acid–base chemistry. Nutrition and Problem Solving: Food for Thought. Denio, A. A.; Bennett, C. R.; 1984, 61, 1076. Calculation; h.s./coll. Students calculate the number of Calories per dollar of foods, and ounce/dollar of protein, carbohydrate and fat, providing practice dealing with units and making judgments of value. Organic Nitrates and Nitrites as Heart Drugs. Senozan, N. M.; NasserMoaddeli, S.; 1984, 61, 674. Informational; h.s./coll. Describes events that led to the use of amyl nitrate and nitroglycerine for angina, along with information about their manufacture and pharmacological properties. Chemistry of Gallstones. McKnight, J. D.; Julian, M. M.; 1983, 60, 594. Informational; h.s./coll. Discusses the chemistry of gallstones, including their formation, diagnosis, and treatment.

The blue bottle reaction can accompany a discussion of an unusual medical condition and its treatment.

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Blood Buffer Demonstration. Ophardt, C. E.; checked by Krause, P. F.; 1983, 60, 493. Demonstration; h.s./coll. Illustrates pH changes when various substances are added to a simulated blood buffer to mimic the effect of strenuous exercise and metabolic acidosis occurring in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus.



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The Chimney Sweepers’ Cancer: An Interdisciplinary View of Chemical Carcinogenesis. Labianca, D. A.; 1982, 59, 843. Informational; h.s./coll. Discusses the condition known as “chimneysweepers’ cancer”, including its chemistry and connections to history and literature. Chemical Aspects of Dentistr y. Helfman, M.; 1982, 59, 666. Activity/Informational; h.s./coll./poss. elem. Describes procedures for treating tooth decay and gum disease, with ideas for incorporating these topics into the high school curriculum. An Illustration of Applied Calorimetry-Dieting Students. Perkins, R. R.; 1981, 58, 548. Calculation; h.s./coll. Poses a weight loss idea that illustrates the enthalpy of phase transitions and provides practice with unit conversion. Bicarbonate in Alka-Seltzer. Peck, L.; Irgolic, K.; O’Connor, R.; 1980, 57, 517. Experiment; h.s./coll. Students generate CO2 with Alka-Seltzer and 6M HCl and determine the amount of NaHCO3 in the original tablet using gas law calculations. The Discovery of Penicillin. Twentieth Century Wonder Drug. Kauffman, G. B.; 1979, 56, 454. Informational; h.s./coll. Describes a series of apparently unrelated events that combined to lead to Fleming’s accidental discovery of penicillin in 1928. Notes on Nutrition. J. Chem. Educ. Staff; 1978, 55, 113. Informational; h.s./coll./poss. elem. Shares nutritional information, including key chemical components of food, energy used during various activities, essential nutrients, and the energy value of certain foods. Understanding Chemistry by Developing Body Chemistry Awareness. Barelski, P. M.; 1976, 53, 450. Activity; h.s./coll./poss. elem. Lists 20 brief activities that develop body chemistry awareness, including eating peanuts, breathing exercises, and tensing/relaxing muscles. Discusses the chemical connection to each activity.

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✰ Resources for Chemistry: Health and Wellness, continued A Dalton’s Law Experiment for Students in the Health Sciences. Feigl, D. M.; 1974, 51, 273. Experiment; h.s./coll. Students measure PCO2 of inhaled and exhaled air using minimal chemicals and equipment. Demonstrates the ability of the lungs to effect the removal of excess carbon dioxide from the body. Nitroglycerin: The Explosive Drug. Holmes, L. C.; DiCarlo, F. J.; 1971, 48, 573. Informational; h.s./coll. Describes the development of nitroglycerin as a drug, from its discovery in 1847 to its use as a treatment for angina decades later.

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Demonstrating Osmotic and Hydrostatic Pressures in Blood Capillaries. Ledbetter, J. W., Jr.; Jones, H. D.; 1967, 44, 362. Demonstration; h.s./coll. Illustrates pressures that exist within a blood capillary using dialysis membrane, sucrose, glass tubing, and methyl red indicator. Chemicals in Food: Health Significance and Control. Kaplan, E.; 1960, 37, 82. Informational; h.s./coll. Describes the history (1960s and earlier) of various food additives and the U.S. govern-ment’s regulation of their use. Discusses pesticides, hormones, antibiotics, flavorings, dyes, and radiation.

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