March 26, 1980

Mar 26, 1980 - W.R.:Barton.J.K.:U~.S.J.Sclena,1979,203. Inld~lnle. I i i I .... Sir: One key intermediate in the Fischer-Tropsch process may be a meta...
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Journal of !he American Chemical Society



/ March 26, 1980

strand was noted Thus, of the various candidates for the cis-DDP recognition site on DNA?.'' intrastrand cross-linking of nearest neighbor guanineI0.l4 or cytosine bases by the drug is strongly supported by the present results. Acknowledgments. This work was supported by N I H Research Grant No. GM-21116 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (to W.R.B.) and CA-15826 from the National Cancer Institute (to S.J.L.). We thank Engelhard Industries for a generous gift of K2PtC14 used to prepare cisand trans-DDP. References and Notes (1)(a) Rosenberg. B.: Van Camp. L.: Tmsko, J. E.: MBnsour. V. H. &We

(London) 1969,222,385386. (b) For r m repolts on me ciiniaistBhls of lhe drug. SBB Biochhlie 1978, 60,915-965. (2) Roberts. J. J.; m p s o n . A. J. Rog. Nucleic AcMRes. Mol. EW. 1979,

22.71-133. (3)Cohen.G.L.:Bauer.W.R.:Barton.J.K.:U~.S.J.Sclena,1979,203. I. nI l d.~_ l n l~ e .".-.

I i i I A C 30"5'

i 40'







I 1

20h 36h 4d C Figure 2. Elcctrophoresis in I%itgnrose gelr of a mixture of closed and nicked circuiar pSMl DNAs incubiitcd with cis-DDP for various time intervals and treated with Pst I restriction endonuclease. Channels 2-24 correspond lo incubation times of 0 ( C , control) and 30 s, 1.5.5, IO, 20,

(4) Neal. M.: Fiaini, J. Ami. Biochem. 1973. 55. 328-330. (5) Platlnum binding inhibits cleavage at lhe lour PSI I cutting iunclions in Um order DB >> AC > BA CD as shown by a m e detailed analysis m be


reported elsewhere. (6) Rose". J.. unpublished resub hom the lab-nalq 01 E. Chtsubo, SUNY-Stony Brook. (7)Alternatively. it may be lhe (ffiMffih c i u s t at ~ bolh ends of lhe iUncIion that tcgether prodwe the reieclivily. Sequencing S M i e r are CUrrentlY in progress lo idenlily which bases are platinate3 near the D-B Junction. (8) (a) Stone. P. J.: Kelman, A. D.: Sinex. F. M. Nstwe (Londm) 1974,251, 736-737.(b) Stone. P. J.; Kelman. A. D.: Sinex, F. M.;Bhargva. M. M.: Haluorson. H. 0. J. Mol. Bioi. 1976. 104, 793-801. (9)Mansy, S.;Chu. G. Y. H.: Duncan, R. E.: Tobias. R. S. J. Am. Chem. SOC.

and40min.1.3,2,3.5,7.9,12,16,20,24,30,36,48,72.96,andO(C) h. The amount of platinum bound per nucleotide for channels 3-23 was determined by AA to fise from 3.63 X IO-' after 20 min to 0.070 near the end of the incubation period. Labels refer to fragments identified in Figure 1978, 100.607-616. I; the symbols II-Pt and Ill-Pt refer to nicked circular and linear DNAs, (10) Kelman. A. D.: Buchblnder. M. Blachimk, 1976, 60. 893-899. (11) Macquet. J.-P.: Bmouc J A . Biochlmle 1978,80, 901-914. respectiveiy. produced following long time incubation with cir-DDP (see (12)Gellert. R. W.: Bau, R. Met. lonsBiol. Spf. 1979,8, 1-55. ref I S ) . Channel I contains A DNA cut with Hind 111 as an internal (13)Barton. J. K.: Lippard. S. J. Ann. N.Y. Aced. Sci. 1978,313,686-700. standard for siring the pSMi D N A fragments. Further experimental (14)(a) K~I-, A. D.; PWBS~B,H. J.; stone, P. J. J. clin. Hemami. w i . 1977, details and results will be reported elsewhere. 7.440-451. (b) C r a m . R. E.: Dahlsbbm. P. L.: Sew M. J. T.; NoRon. T.:

quence, the selective inhibition by cis-DDP of cleavage at the D-B junction must involve base pairs adjacent to the restriction sequence. Figure I displays the sequencesh of pSMl DNA surrounding the four Pst I restriction sites. Examination of the region around the D-B junction reveals the occurrence of a unique (dC)4(dC)4 cluster to which we ascribe the selectivity of cleavage inhibition? The other three cutting sites are not adjacent to an oligo(dG).(dC) sequence. Studies of the reaction of cis-DDP with DNAs of varying (G C)/(A T) ratios have shown that the extent of binding increases with the (C C) content; moreover, binding to poly(dG).poly(dC) is substantially greater than to poly(dG.dC)! A study of cis-DDP with various nucleotides showed the rate of reaction with 5'G M P to be the most rapid? A previous investigation of the effect of cis-DDP on the Bam HI restriction enzyme digest of h DNA was interpreted as evidence for binding to adjacent guanine bases, although this was not a unique interpretation.'O The present results are the first demonstration of selective binding of cis-DDP to a specific sequence in a naturally occurring DNA. It is also noteworthy that the effect occurs with as little as four bound platinum atoms per thousand nucleotides. An examination ofa CPK space filling model of (dC)4(dG)4 reveals that cis-DDP can bind two adjacent guanine bases at N-1, or two adjacent cytosine bases at N-3, if base pairing is disrupted. The models indicate that such binding could produce a twofold shortening of the DNA measured along the original helix axis, as found by electron m i c r o ~ c o p y . ' ~Numerous ~~ X-ray diffraction studies of guanine or cytosine containing DNA fragments coordinated to cis-DDP support the likelihood of N - I ( G )or N-3 (C) It is interesting that the two guanine N-1 atoms of the d(pGpG) unit cannot bind the inactive trans-diammineplatinum(1I)moiety as revealed by studying CPK models of the dinucleotide and the platinum complex. The difficulty of coordinating a trans-diammineplatinum(l1) complex to adjacent guanine bases on a DNA




0002-7863/80/ 1502-2488SOl.OO/O

Kashiwagi. M. lnorg. Chem. 1960, 19,148-154. (15)HoweUant.M.;Wu.K.C.:Bauer.W.R.:Lippard.S.J.BiDddrmpbY1974 15,4339-4346.

Gary L Cohen, Jay A. Ledner, William R. Bauer' Deparrmenl of Microbiology. SUNY Stony Brook. New York 11794

H.Michael Ushsy, Carl Caravana, Stephen J. Lippard* Deparlmenl af Chemistry. Columbia Uniuersity New York. New York 10027 Received December 3, 1979

Mechanism of Oxidative Cleavage of a-Hydroxyalkylchromium Complexes Sir: One key intermediate in the Fischer-Tropsch process may be a metal-bound a-hydroxyalkyl group.l.* Transition metal complexes containing this group'-5 are relatively rare and often quite unstable, and thus their chemistry has not been extensively explored. Hydroxymethyl complexes of cobalt(Il1) macro cycle^,'.^ for example, undergo unimolecular decomposition in aqueous solution by an internal two-electron process (eq 1) preventing an examination of their chemical reactions.



[Co"1(N4chel)CH20H]"+ H20 [Co1(N4chel)]"-'

+ HCHO + H,O+


The closely related chromium(Il1) analogues6,' such as (H20)5CrCH20HZ+ and other (H20)5CrCRR'OH2+ cations are stable to decomposition in this manner.8 We have found that these complexes, prepared by the published methods: are very powerful but selective reducing agents. They react with 0 1980 American Chemical Society


Communications to the Editor

the mild and substitution-labile one-electron oxidants Fe3+ and Cu2+, whereas the analogous chromium alkyls do not. The exceptional chemistry of the hydroxyalkylchromium cations is shown not only by the formation of the reduced metal ion (Cu+ or Fe2+),but also by the net reduction of chromium to its divalent state, as shown in eq 2.


CrCRR’OH2+ CuZ+(orFe3+) = Cr2+ Cu+(or Fe2+)


+ RR’CO + H +

(2) The Cr2+ produced, unless specifically ~ c a v e n g e dis, ~subsequently oxidized’O by a second mole of Fe3+ (rapidly) or Cu2+ (slowly). In each case, the stoichiometry of the reactions and the yields and identities of the organic and inorganic products as given in this equation were unambiguously determined.” The mechanism of these intriguing reactions was investigated by kinetic studies over a wide range of concentrations. I 2A small sample of the data for CrCH(CH3)OH2+ is shown in Figure 1 . These results were used to establish the rate equation

1. Representative kinetic data for the oxidation of CrCH(CH3)OH2+ by Cu2+ and Fe3+showing (left) the linear variation of the pseudo-first-order rate constant with the concentration of oxidant at constant [H+] (line I,Cu2+ at 0.1 M H+;2, Cu2+ at 0.5 M H+; 3, Fe3+ at 0.8 M H + ) and (right) the variation of the second-order rate constant with [H+]-’.


does not react with Cu2+ at all and the latter reacts so slowly that only an approximate value, k’ < 2 X s-l, can be -d[CrCRR’OH2+]/dt cited. Both findings are consistent with the formulation given = { k d ( k k’[H+]-’)[M]][CrCRRrOH2+] (3) in eq 7, in that the very electronegative substituent would be where kd is the rate of spontaneous a c i d ~ l y s i and s ~ ~M~ ~ ~ expected ~ to greatly reduce electron transfer from coordinated represents Cu2+ or Fe3+. The rate constantsI2 for alcohol to chromium, and an OR group in place of O H would CrCH20H2+are k (M-I s-l) = 0.036 f 0.007 (Cu2+),0.22 be expected to prevent reaction by this pathway. f 0.01 (Fe3+);k’ (s-l) ,= 0.251 f 0.003 (Cu2+),0.496 f 0.006 Acknowledgment. This work was supported by the U S . (Fe3+). These values are such that the pathway represented Department of Energy, Contract No. W-7405-Eng-82, Office by the rate constant k’ predominates under the conditions of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences Division. employed. Values of k’ for the related complex CrCH(CH3)0H2+ are 1.46 f 0.05 (Cu2+)and 0.481 f 0.005 References and Notes (Fe3+) s-l and for CrC(CH3)20H2+ are 0.574 f 0.013 (1) Cusamano. D. A,; Dalla Betta, R. A,; Levy, R. B. “Catalysis in Coal Con(Cu2+) and 1.90 f 0.08 (Fe3+) s-l. version”; Academic Press: New York, 1978; Chapter 19. The mechanism proposed to account for the major pathway (2) Henrlci-Olive, G.; Olive, S.Angew. Chem., int. Ed. Engl. 1978, 15, 136. (3) Blackburn, R.; Kyaw. M.; Phillips, G. 0.; Swallow, A. J. J. Chem. SOC., in which the consists of a rapidly established preeq~ilibriuml~ Faraday Trans. 1 1975, 71. 2277. proton of the C-bonded alcohol is replaced by the metal ion (4) Elroi, H.; Meyerstein, D. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1978, 100, 5540. (5) (a) Gladysz, J. A,: Selover, J. C.; Strouse, C. E. J. Am. Chem. SOC. 1978, oxidant. For Fe3+, for example,

+ +

+ H2O FeOH2+ + H+ (4) ( H20)5CrCH20H2+ + FeOH2+ + [(H20)5CrCH20Fe4+] Fe3+,q



(5) Cr2+,q

+ Fe2+,, + HCHO


According to this mechanism, if the intermediate is assumed to follow the steady-state approximation and reaction 6 is taken to be rate limiting, k’ = K4K5k6. Values of k’ for the three complexes studied are quite similar for bath Cu2+ and Fe3+, all lying within the range 0.25-1.9 s-l. This suggests that the rate in every case may be governed by a similar process, most likely electron transfer to chromium( Ill). This idea is incorporated into the scheme shown in eq 7. Clearly ruled out by the






/ \

100, 6766. (b) Casey, C. P.; Andrews, M. A,; McAlister, D. R. bid. 1979, 101, 3371. (6) Schmidt, W. 0.; Swinehart, J. H.; Taube. H. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1971, 93, 1117. (7) Cohen, H.; Meyerstein, D. horg. Chem. 1974, 13, 2434. (8) This is not unexpected considering the reducing strength of C :,.’r Cohen, H.; Meyerstein, D. J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. 1974, 2559. (9) Quantitative pccduction of Cr2+ was confirmed by conducting the reactions in the presence of Co(NH&X2+ (X = F, CI, Br), substitution-inert oxidants which do not react directly with the CrROH2+ complexes. CrX2+ and Co2+ were found in the expected amounts. Addition of the cobalt complexes caused no change in rate. (10) In the case of Fe3+, oxidation of Cr2+ occurs rapidly compared with the rate of eq 2, although not so rapidly as to prevent scavenging of Cr2+ by CO(NH&B~~+ The . ~ reoxidation of Cr2+ by Cu2+ occurs more slowly and is competitive with the rate of eq 2. (11) The organic products for the three CrCRR’OH2+ complexes with CRR‘OH = CHZOH, CH(CHa)OH, and C(CHJ)~OHare, respectively, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone: these products support the formulations of the complexes themselves as given p r e v i o ~ s l and y ~ ~are ~ consistent with the stoichiometric requirements of eq 2. (12) Kinetic data were evaluated spectrophotometrically at 24.8 OC, 1.00 M ionic strength, in 1 M (-4-8 vol. %)aqueous alcohol (methanol, ethanol, or 2-propanol, respectively). Reactions conducted using a large stoichiometric excess of Cu2+ or Fe3+ followed pseudo-firstsrder kinetics, with k*d dependent on [H+] and [Cu2+] or [Fe3+] as shown in Figure 1. A small excess of Cr2+ was usually employed in the preparation of crftcii*+; excess hydrogen peroxide was occasionally used, but this proved immaterial as H202 does not react with the CrCRR‘OH2+ complexes. (13) The reaction CrCH20H2+ H+ = Cr3+ CH30H is barely perceptible under the conditions studied. (14) The preequilibrium is formulated as the two steps of eq 4 and 5 rather than a sinale wocess, since the latter would be inconsistent with the substitution ratesof ’Fe(H20)e3+. (15) Buxton, 0.F.; Green, J. C. J. Chem. Soc.,Faraday Trans. 1 1978, 74, 697. (16) Kochi, J. K.; Jenkins, C. L. J. Am. Chem. SOC. 1972, 94, 843. (17) On leave from “Ruder BoskoviC” Institute, Zagreb, Croatia, Yugoslavia.


R nature of the organochromium complexes is a mechanism similar to that found for free .ROH radicals by copper(I1) ions, involving an organocopper i r ~ t e r m e d i a t e . ’An ~ , ~examination ~ was also made of -the two closely related complexes CrCH(CH3)0C2HsZ+and CrCH(CF3)0H2+. The former


James H. Espenson,* Andreja Baka6l7 Ames Laboratory and Department of Chemistry Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 5001 I Received December 3, 1979