Micellar effects upon the hydrolysis of bis-2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate


G. J. Buist, C. A. Bunton,2 L. Robinson, L. Sepulveda,3 and M. Siam. Contribution from the Department of Chemistry, University of California,. Santa B...
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4072

G . J. Buist, C. A. Bunton,2 L. Robinson, L. S e p ~ l v e d a and , ~ M. Stam

Contribution from the Department of Chemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, and the Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. Received December 10, 1969 Abstract: Micellar effects upon the reaction between hydroxide ion and bis-2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate to give 2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate have been examined. The reaction is catalyzed up to 30-fold by cationic micelles of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTABr, unaffected by anionic micelles of sodium lauryl sulfate, NaLS, and inhibited by uncharged micelles of a polyether. Added salts, particularly those with large, low charge density anions effectivelyinhibit catalysis by CTABr. Turbidity measurements show that the substrate and CTABr form submicellar aggregates, but that added salts reduce their formation. The ability of salts to inhibit formation of these submicellar aggregates increases with decreasing charge density of the anion, e.g., tosylates are more effective than chlorides. The micellar effects upon the second stage of the reaction, hydrolysis of 2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate, follow the usual pattern of catalysis by CTABr and no effect of an anionic or uncharged detergent and only a slight rate enhancement by hydroxide ion. The catalysis of the hydrolysis of 2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate by CTABr and CTACl is not sensitive to large changes in detergent concentration which lead to a change in micellar shapes.

T

h e spontaneous hydrolysis of bis-2,4-dinitrophenyI phosphate m o n o a n i o n is a relatively slow reaction which involves rate-limiting attack of water u p o n t h e m o n o a n i o n 4 (eq l), whereas t h e faster hydrolysis of 2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate dianion involves a ratelimiting heterolysis (eq 2 ) . 5 , 6

0 I

+

ArO-$-OAr

I 0

ArO-PO?-

HzO

+

Ar =NO,

ArOP03-H

Ard

+

PO,-

+

ArOH (1)

(2)

yo2

6

At higher pH hydroxide ion attacks t h e bis-2,4dinitrophenyl p h o s p h a t e m ~ n o a n i o n , ~ b u t t h e corresponding reaction of 2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate dianion is slower and makes less contribution to t h e overall reaction.6 T h e spontaneous hydrolyses of 2,4- a n d 2,6-dinitrophenyl phosphate dianions a r e catalyzed by cationic micelles of cetyltrimethylamm o n i u m bromide, C T A B r , but there is almost no catalysis of t h e reaction with hydroxide ion.’ T h e spontaneous hydrolyses of 2,4-dinitro- a n d bis-2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphates occur with complete P-0 fission, a n d predominant P-0 fission is observed in t h e reaction of hydroxide ion with bis-2,4-dinitrophenyI phosphate. 4 , 8 (1) Support of this work by the National Institute of Arthritis and . . Diseases and the National Science Foundation is gratefully Metabolic . acknowledged. (2) To whom inquiries should be addressed. (3) University of Chile-University of California Cooperative Program Fellow on leave from the Faculty of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Chile, Santiago. (4) C. A . Bunton and S . J. Farber. J . Ora. Chem.. 34. 767 (1969). (S) A . J. Kirby and A. G. Varvoglis, Amer. Chem. Sdc., 89,415 (1967). (6) C. A. Bunton, E. J. Fendler, and J. H . Fender, [bid., 89, 1221 (1967). ~

(7)’C. A. Bunton, E. J. Fendler, L. Sepulveda, and I> kl and the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenol has a (8) C. A. Bunton and J. M . Hellyer, J . Org. Chem., 34,2798 (1969). (9) J. R. Cox and 0. B. Ramsay, Chem. Reu., 64,343 (1964). (IO) D. M. Brown and D. A. Usher, J . Chem. Soc., 6558 (1965);

D. G. Oakenfull, D . I. Richardson, and D. A. Usher, J . Amer. Chem. Soc., 89, 5491 (1967). (11) C . A. Bunton and L. Robinson, J . Org. Chem., 34, 773 (1969); C.A. Bunton, L. Robinson, and L. Sepulveda, ibid., 35, 108 (1970); J . Amer. Chem. Soc.. 91.4813 (19691. (12) R . B. Dunlap and E . H . Cordes, ibid., 90, 4395 (1968): L. R . Romsted and E. H . Cordes, ibid., 90,4404 (1968).

4073 first-order kinetic form,' but at higher pH the system has to be treated as two consecutive fist-order reactions, and the integrated rate equation can be solved using a simple program and the CullerFried on-line system connected to an IBM 360-75 computer.1a In this system the information is displayed on the screen of a cathode-ray tube. The integrated rate equation for consecutive first-order reactions can be written as

-

t -

jl

+ (2kz - kl)e-kl' - kle-k*\

(T, \'I

.

where Dt and D, are the absorbances at times t and m The computer was programmed to calculate Dt from the known value of D, and assumed values of kl and kz. The values of Dt(calcd) Dt(obsd) were then displayed graphically, and the values of kl and kz were adjusted so that there was no systematic deviation of Dt(calcd) - Dt(obsd) in the course of the run. In practice kz was known approximately from earlier work6J and this trial and error procedure took little time. Equation I assumes that the reaction starts at t = 0, and to allow for errors in the starting time, or the presence of products in the starting material, we introduced a correcting term 6t to allow for these uncertainties and replaced t by t 6t, with 6 t being adjusted to give the best fit. The values of 6t were always very small compared with the half-life of the overall reaction. Because of initial hydrolysis 6t was larger when the substrate was dissolved initially in water rather than dioxane. As an objective test of the method the maximum, 6, and the standard deviation, CT, of Dt(ca1cd) from Dt(obsd) were calculated for each run, and were always in the range 0.003-0.008. This procedure kz, but this condition was not would be unsatisfactory when kl met in our reactions. In most experiments kl was considerably larger than k 2 and the best values ofkl were obtained by concentrating the readings in the first 6 0 z of reaction; this procedure meant that the values of kZ were correspondingly less accurate, although this problem was of no great concern to us because they can be obtained directly.? Duplicate values of kl were within 5 % of each other, but the corresponding figure was ca. 10% for kz. Hydrolyses of 2,4dinitrophenyl phosphate at high detergent concentrations were followed directly.' For reactions at low pH the values of kl were calculated graphically using the integrated first-order rate equation, because kz >> kl. All the rate constants are at 25.0", and are first order with respect to phosphate ester, with units of sec-1. Most of the attack of hydroxide is upon phosphoryl phosphorus in the absence of detergents,' but because of the very low substrate concentrations used in the detergent-catalyzed reactions we could not determine the position of bond fission in this system. Evidence for P-0 fission in the micellar-catalyzed reaction is that the maximum first-order rate constant for attack of OH- in the micellar phase upon the 2,4-dinitrophenyl group of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in CTABr is ca. lo-' sec-l in 0.01 M NaOH,14and slower than the reaction in the micellar phase of bis-2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate 0.01 M OH- in CTABr.

+

-

Results Kinetics. The values of kl and k2 were determined using hydroxide ion concentrations 0.01-0.1 M in the Table I. Micellar Catalysis of the Reaction of Bis-2,4-dinitrophenyl Phosphate with Hydroxide Ion= COH,M

0.50

1.00

0.005 0.010 0.010* 0.020

0.23 0.47 0.33

0.59 1.18 0.83 2.50

0.100

103cCTABr,M 2.00 3.00 0.46 0.87 1.95 1.75 3.33

0.85 2.00 2.00 3.35

4.00 0.46 0.94 2.10 2.10 3.00

"Values of 103kl, sec-l in aqueous solution at 25.0"; in the absence of detergent, kl = 0.03 X 10-3 sec-1, with 0.01 M NaOH, ref 4. *With 1.5 vol dioxane. (13) For a discussion of the use of this system see D. 0. Harris, J. T. Gerig, and C. S.Ewig, J . Chem. Edrrc., 47, 97 (1970). (14) C. A . Bunton and L. Robinson, J . Amer. Chem. Soc., 90, 5972 ( 1968).

Id C,

M

Figure 1. Values of kl (left-hand scale and solid line) and k2(righthand scale and broken line) at 25.0" and 0.01 M NaOH. The open points refer to the solutions containing 1.5 wt % dioxane.

presence of CTABr (Tables I and 11, Figure 1). Addition of 1.5 vol % dioxane approximately doubles both kl and kz in the presence of CTABr. Part of the effect Table 11. Micellar Catalysis of the Hydrolysis of the Reaction of 2,4-Dinitrophenyl Phosphatea ~

COR-,M

0.50

-103cCTABr, M1.00 2.00 3.00 0.68

0.005 0.010 O.OIOb 0.020 0.100

0.33 0.88 0.33

0.73 1.62 0 83 1.50

1.60 1.40 1.30 3.40 2.40 2.27

1.82 2.00 3.70 2.80 2.90

4.00 1.86 1.60 2 05 3.70 2 50 2.40

Values in a Values of 104k2,sec-1 in aqueous solution at 25.0". the absence of OH- are from ref 7. With 1.5 vol dioxane.

z

could be caused by the ability of nonpolar solvents such as dioxane to reduce the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and so allow formation of micelles at low concentrations of detergent, l 5 but this effect should not affect the maximum values of kl and k2 in the "plateau" region where all the substrate is incorporated into micelles. Therefore we must assume that dioxane enhances the catalytic properties of CTABr micelles, possibly by decreasing their polarity. Spontaneous hydrolyses of dinitrophenyl phosphate dianions are assisted strongly by the addition of organic solvents to ~ a t e r ,but ~ , the ~ effects are less marked for the reaction of the bis-2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate monoanion. However, the effects which we observe must be related to stabilization of the transition states relative to the initial states in the micellar phase, as well as to a change in the number of micelles present at a given detergent concentration. We also measured the values of k, for the hydrolysis of 2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate dianion at high concentrations of CTABr and CTACl up to 0.3 M , and (15) P. H. Elworthy, A. T. Florence, and C. B. MacFarlane, "Solubilization by Surface-ActiveAgents," Chapman and Hall, London, 1968, Chapter 1.

Buist, et at.

/

Hydrolysis of Bis-2,4-dinitrophenyl Phosphate

4074 Table III. Effects of High Detergent Concentrations on the Hydrolysis of 2,4-Dinitrophenyl Phosphate5

Table VI. Salt Effects upon Catalysis by CTABrO -Cialt,

Detergent-

d . 0 2 kl'lkl" kz'lkz"

r -

0

CD,M

CTABr

0.004 0.005 0.01 0.05 0.10 0.18 0.40

1.97

CTACl 1.88

1.90 1.88 2.28 2.20 2.26

1.90 1.95

Salt

0.75 0.35 0.27 0.05

NaCl NaBr NaNOa NaOTos

M -0-.

0.93 0.58 0.40 0.15

ki'/kio

kz'lkz"

0.43 0.18 0.14 0.011

0.71 0.42 0.24 0.045

a At 25.0" in aqueous solution with 0.01 M NaOH and 4 X lWa M CTABr.

Values of 104k2,sec-1 at pH 9.0 in 0.015 M borate buffer.

found approximately constant values of k2 for a given detergent (Table 111). The values of kz at low detergent concentrations are slightly higher than those observed earlier,Bprobably because the borate buffer was 0.015 M instead of 0.025 M. A few kinetic runs were made using 0.01 M sodium hydroxide in sodium lauryl sulfate, NaLS (Table IV). Table IV. Effect of Anionic Detergent upon the Hydrolysis of Bis-2,4-dinitrophenyl and 2,4-Dinitrophenyl Phosphate5 3.0b 2.6 2.3 2.9

0.005 0.010 0.025

8.1c 6.1 5.0 6.4 ~~

At 25.0" in 0.01 M NaOH.

Reference 4.

Reference 6.

This anionic detergent slightly reduced the values of kl and kz. Similar observations were made earlier on the hydrolysis of the 2,6-dinitrophenyl phosphate dianion.' The kinetic effect of an uncharged detergent was also examined, using 0.01 M sodium hydroxide (Table V). Table V. Effect of Uncharged Detergent upon the Hydrolysis of Bis-2,4-Dinitrophenyl Phosphate" CDNPE,M

106ki 3.0b 0.61 0.50 0.39 0.30 0.26

0.001 0.002 0.005 0.010

0.025 At 25.0" in 0.01 M NaOH.

Reference 4.

Rather unexpectedly DNPE reduces the value of kl, so that kz becomes larger than kl, and the overall reaction follows approximate first-order kinetics. Under these conditions we cannot calculate good k2 values from the kinetic data, although independent experiments showed that DNPE only slightly reduced the rate of the similar hydrolysis of 2,6-dinitrophenyl phosphate dianion.' The values of kl given in Table V were calculated using eq I, but they are very similar to the values obtained assuming a simple first-order kinetic form, and the first-order rate equation was followed for approximately two half-lives. Added salts inhibit the catalysis of both steps of the hydrolysis by CTABr (Table VI), as is generally found,7,11,12,14.16 (16) C. A. Bunton and

L.Robinson, J . Org. Chem., 34, 780 (1969).

Journal of the American Chemical Society

/ 92:13 / July 1, 1970

In most of the experiments the nucleophile was hydroxide ion, but a few experiments were made at low pH where kz >> kl and water is the nucleophile. Phosphate or borate buffers were used, and rate increases were observed (Table VI1 and VIII). The Table VII. EffeeLts of CTABr upon the Hydrolysis of Bis-2,4-dinitrophenyl Phosphate at pH 6.0' 1.Y 1.9b 2.7b 2.0b 1.9b 2.Y 2.5" 3.9 3.2c 3.4b 2.0" 2.3d

0.6 0.6 0.6 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 1 .o 1 .o 1 .o 1.o 1.o

0.05 0.10 0.25 0.25 0.50 0.75 1 .o 1 .o 2.0 2.0 5.0 5.0

aIn water at 25.0" with phosphate buffer; in the absence of M phos1X detergent kl = 0.21 X 10-6 sec-l at pH 6.0. phate buffer. c 5 X 10-3 M phosphate buffer. 2 X lo-' M phosphate buffer. Table VIII. Effects of CTABr upon the Hydrolysis of Bis-2,4-dinitrophenyl Phosphate at pH 8.00 103cD,M

1O5Csubstrate,M

106kl, sec-l

0.05 0.10 0.20 0.50

0.6 0.6 0.6 1.o

2.8 6.5 13 17 20 13

1.o

1.o

1 .o

2.8 ~~

~~

a In water at 25.0" with 2 X 10-3 M borate buffer; in the absence sec-l. of detergent kl = 0.25 X

values of kl do not depend in any simple way upon the reagent or buffer concentrations, probably because phosphate ion may act as a nucleophile" (Scheme I), but it and borate ion should also hinder incorporation of bis-2,4-dinitrophenyI phosphate into the micellar phase. Scheme I

9ArOH

t

1 2ArOP0:-

+

I

I1 0

I 0

ArO-P-0-P-OH

-

0-

I

2ArOH

4

ArOH

4075 In addition a concurrent reaction involving C-0 fission may occur, although other evidence makes this reaction i m p r ~ b a b l e . ~At pH 8.0 using borate buffer we observe large rate increases (Table VIII), probably because in the absence of detergent the major reaction involves attack of water upon the diaryl phosphate m ~ n a n i o n whereas ,~ the cationic micelles so assist the reaction between hydroxide ion and the substrate that it becomes a major contributor to the overall reaction. These results show that hydrolysis at low pH is slower than at high pH, in the presence and absence of cationic micelles, although because of the complexity of the system we cannot separate the detergent effects upon the attack of water and hydroxide ion. For reactions in the aqueous phase the electrolyte effects of buffer ions can be compensated for, to a limited extent, by carrying out the reaction at constant ionic strength, or in the presence of a large concentration of electrolyte. This procedure is suspect because it ignores the specificity of many kinetic salt effects,16,17but it is completely unsatisfactory for micellar-catalyzed reactions where salts have large specific effects upon the incorporation of ionic reagents into the micellar phase." 11,12,16 Turbidity Experiments. When bis-2,4-dinitrophenyI phosphate monoanion in low concentration is added to a slight excess of CTABr a precipitate is formed (Table IX), which does not coagulate on standing, and which Table IX. Turbidity Measurements on Mixtures of Bis-2,4-dinitrophenyI Phosphate and CTABra ~O'CCTAB~, M 1.09 r

0.000 0.196 0.385 0.555 0.566 0.741 0.909 1.07 1.23 1.38 1.53 1.66 1.81 1.94 2.19 2.31 2.86

1.65b

104c8, M 1.65' 1.65d

1.77

3.20 3.73e

OOOO 0.OOO 0.000 0.000 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.012 0.028 0.040 0.020 0.10 0.13

0.035 0.060 0.070 0.045 0.20 0.24 0.050 0.075 0.075 0.055 0.052 0.075 0.058 0.048 0.26 0.050 0.068 0.012 0.010 0.24 0.22 0,042 0.029 0.055 0.000 0.000 0.18 0.015 0.14 0.008 0.11 0.000 0.030 0.04 0.01 0.00

0.31 0.98 0.40 0.42 0.41 0.39 0.36 0.32 0.27 0.08

2.31 1.83 1.60 1.04 0.08 0.03

0.010 0.000

Absorbance measured at 800 mp unless specified. 1 X M NaOTos. c5 X M NaOTos. dO.O1 M NaCl. sorbance measured at 400 mu. 0

phosphate monoanion and detergent cation, shown as an ion pair (A), with the following equilibria set up between the detergent cation, D+, and the diaryl phosphate monoanion, P, and the substrate-micelle complex, PDnn+,but it is possible that a whole family of submicellar or other aggregates of substrate and detergent exist with no simple stoichiometry. Kinetic

+ P- e [D+P-] e [D+P-] solid [D+P-] + ({z - 1)D+ e P+D,"+

D+

and other evidence for such interactions have been obtained in other ~ y s t e m s . ~ ' ~ We ~ , ~found ~ , ~ ~no, ~ ~ turbidity when CTABr was mixed with dinitrophenyl phosphate d i a n i o n ~ presumably ,~ because the hydration energy of these dianions is so high that they do not form ion pairs or aggregates analogous to A. Because of the large rate inhibitions observed with added salts we also examined salt effects upon the turbidity of mixtures of CTABr and bis-2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate. Added sodium tosylate sharply decreases the turbidity of solutions of CTABr and bis-2,4-dinitrophenyI phosphate, but sodium chloride has less effect, and sodium bromide and nitrate have intermediate effects. Some examples of this behavior are given in Tables IX-XI11 for various concentrations Table X. Effect of Sodium Tosylate upon the Turbidity of Bis-2,4-dinitrophenyl Phosphate and CTABra 104cNnOTor, M

0.91

0.00 0.98 1.92 2.83 3.70 4.55 6.14 7.63 8.33 11.3 14.8 21.4 27.6 33.3 63.7 235 333 500 636

0.050 0.042 0.034 0.020 0.008 0.000

104ccs,~1.95 2.65

5.53

0.31

0.98

0.095 0.092 0.092 0.089 0.080 0.068 0.048 0.028 0.022 0.004

0.31 0.30 0.27 0.23 0.15 0.080 0.024 0.75 0.56 0.41 0.27 0.165

a Values of absorbance measured at 800 mp in the presence of 8 X lo-' M CTABr. Alternate points are omitted for the experiments at the higher concentrations of sodium tosylate.

exists as a stable suspension. The turbidity initially increases with added detergent, but then decreases at detergent concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (cmc), suggesting that the phosphate monoanion dissolves in the micellar phase giving a clear solution. These experiments were generally carried out with detergent concentrations considerably lower than those required to reach the plateau values of the rate constants. The precipitate can form at detergent concentrations below the cmc and may be a sparingly soluble salt of

of bis-2,4-dinitrophenyI phosphate, C, and added electrolytes. In addition we found that with 1.14 X M bis-2,4-dinitrophenyI phosphate and CTABr M the solutions concentrations up to 2.86 X remained clear over the whole range of detergent concentrations when 0.002 M or 0.01 M sodium tosylate was added. The results in Tables IX-XI11 show that the amount of sodium salt which is needed to remove the turbidity increases sharply with increasing concentration of bis2,4-dinitrophenyl phosphate, probably because high

(17) C. A. Bunton, J. H. Crabtrec, and L. Robinson, J . Arner. Chem.

(18) P. Mukerjee and I