Principles of unit operations, 2nd edition (Foust, Alan S.; Wenzel


Apr 1, 1981 - Journal of Chemical Education. Kobe. 1957 34 (3), p A133. Abstract | PDF w/ Links | Hi-Res PDF ยท Unit Operations. By G. G. Brown, A. S. ...
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ROOH REVIEUJf historical introduction for those interested in the medical applications of coonlinalion chemistry. In the secondarticle, J. K. Barton and S. J. Lippard authoritatively outline the interac~ tions of heavy metal ions with nucleotides and nucleic acids. Of the many reviews now available on this topic, this one will probably yield the reader the greatest insight into the possible modes of action of the Pt(1I) anticancer drugs. The final chapter by Marzilli, Kistenmacher, and Eiehhorn provides a detailed and thorough review of an overlapping topic regarding the structural interactions of metal ions with nucleotides and nueleic acids. Substantial emphasis in this article is given to the effects of interligand interactions. Despite the overall high quality of these articles, a few significant developments reported near the end of the time Frame surveyed (up to late 1978 with a few 1979 references) were overlooked. Both groups indicate that forcing conditions are necessary for transition metals to coordinate the exocyclic amine of cytidine and adenosine and suggest that stable products of this type will occur only when chelation is possible. However, strong evidence was available a t the time and it has since been unequivocally shown that firm monodentate binding is estahlished a t these exocyclic nitrogens under the mildest of conditions and is maintained even in harsh environments. This mode of coordination has been noted also in nucleic acids in a study which actually isolated and identified individual metal-purine complexes from DNA. Both also neglect intramolecular movement of metal ions between adjacent sites on the heterocyclic bases. A chapter by L. A. Loeb and R. A. Zakour cogently considers the possibilities for genetic miscoding induced by divalent metal ions. However, more thorough treatments of this topic, which extend consideration t o substitutian-inert and polyvalent metal ions, are contained in the recent volumes: "Trace Metals in Health and Disease" (N. Kharaxh, Editor; Raven Press) and "Careingenicity and Metal Ions" (Volume 10,"Metal Ions in Biological Systems," H. Sigel, Editor; M. Dekkar. Inc.). Those primarily interested in metal-induced careinogenesis are referred to these volumes, the former ofwhieh contains a similar article by the same authors. Members of the crystallographic research group responsible for the first structure determination of a tRNA provide an excellent overview of the various m d e s of metal-ion interaetion with this relatively large polymer. Since this article nicely points out the correspondence between the various modes of metal ion binding to nucleotides and the more complicated relationships in polymers, more will be garnered if i t is read fallowing the comprehensive survey by Marzilli, Kistenmaeher, and Eiehhorn. The hook is clearly printed and contains very few typographical errors. At present, i t is the best single source for those interested in this relatively new field. The two articles concerning cis-C12(NH3hPt are recommended particularly for those teaching undergraduates and beginning graduate students. Michael J. Clarke ~ostonCollege Chestnut Hill. MA 02167

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Journal of Chemical Education

Polymer-Polymer Miscibiliy 0 . Olabisi, L. M Robeson, and M. T. Shaw, Academic Press. New York, 1979. xii 370 pp. Figs. and tables. 23.5 X 15.5 cm. $42.50.

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Polymer mixtures occupy an increasingly important position in materials science. Whereas most of the mmmercially important polymer blends are two-phase mixtures, this bonk focuses specifically on miscible, singlephase multicomponent polymer systems. Miscible blends are of particular interest because they may exhibit a continuously variable spectrum of properties, and price, across the composition range of the single phase hehavior. The authors acknowledge a t the outset that the criteria for polymer miscibility remain somewhat ambiguous. Consequently, following a brief introductory chapter, fully one quarter of the book is devoted in Chapter 2 to an examination of the thermodynamics uf polymer-polymer miscibility. Here the elementary considerations of ideal and regular solution theory are used to introduce the solubility parameter (Hildebrand) and lattice theory (Flory-Huggins) approaches t o treatment of ohase euuilihria in multicomputlent polvnm :r.tclns. 'l'hl. rnalrrl?l l i aceumpanied hy ;a u s e r ~ general l discusaim of phnscequilibrie in which tht pmad;d and nucleation and growth mechanisms of phase separation are differentiated in thermodynamic and kinetic terms. Chapter 2 concludes with a review of the more recent "equation of state" theories of polymer solutions which are based on Prieoeine's formalism for the sta" tistical mechhics of liauids. Theoriefi at this ~~~~~level of sophistication are generally required in order to explain the phase behavior ohserved in polymer mixtures. This excellent, up-to-date summary of polymer solution theory, supplemented as is tbe entire book by extensive citations of the original literature, can serve the interested reader as a starting paint and guide. It is not adequate to stand alone as a textbook on polymer solution theory and phase equilibriaLeaving the thermodynamic discussion of Chapter 2, the book turns, in Chapter 3, t o the practical questions of determining whether a particular pair of polymers is miseihle. The criterion of miscibility used most frequently is the occurrence of s single, well-defined rlass transition for the mixture. This rnrth.)d I, huwever, "1 lmned ulil~l\h r sy$rPm* in which the purr qrecies po;+rs similar glass trnnc~tiontrl~~p-raruresM I croscopic examination and, particularly, scattering experiments also can be used profitably to ascertain the number of phases present in a mixture. M e t h d s convenient for these and other sorts of observations of miscibility are described in Chapter 3. The chapter contains a particularly valuable discussion of the pitfalls inherent in trying to assess polymer-polymer miscibility from studies of the hehavior of ternary systems involving a mutual solvent for the two polymers. A review of the newer "inverse" gas chromatographic methods for determining polymer-solvent interaction parameters is included. ('hxpter 4 ~ r . , v ~ J c s a d i ~ c o . iot i . ~mr.rhtd5 n for rnhancing p d y m e r - p d g m r rniit~l,:ii!\ The in~portanwof chem~ralchanges which can render the polymer-polymer interaction more favorable are emphasized. Chapter 5 ~

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gives a conveniently organized and exhaustive listing of the miscible polymer systems which had been reported into 1919. The book's final two chapters describe the properties, i.e., thermal, mechanical, rheological, etc., of miscible polymer mixtures and illustrate their commercial applications. Chapter 7 concludes with a comparison of the char. acteristics of miscible and rnultiphase polymer hlends. The hook will he a valuable addition to the libraries of persons interested in practical and theoretical aspects of polymer phase hehavior. David A. Bram University 01 California Iwlne, CA 92717

Principles of Unii Operations, 2nd Edition Alan S. Foosf. Leonard A. Wenrel, Curtis W. Clump, Louis h4am and L. Bfyce AnderseR John Wiley 8 Sons, New York. 1980. xi 4768 pp. Figs. and tables. 22 X 28.5 cm.

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In the teaching of th'e physical operations (as distinct from chemical processing) of chemical engineering, two distinct ap. proaches are evident. The older approach arises out of the unit operations concept. Pioneered by Walker, Lewis, e t al(1) and Badger and McCabe (2), it attempts to treat each physical operation as a distinct entity and to view chemical plants as combinations of individual equipment items devoted to these operations along with the equipment items devoted t o chemical processing. This approach has been continued in more modern works by Badger and Banchero (3). McCabe and Smith (4), Brown e t a1 (5). and Coulson and Richardson (6). This approach is particularly goad in dealine with oractical aoolications and in .. drvrlcrping a n undersrand>ngof enymeering cqulpment hur i.; limited in developmg a thwrrrtlcal ondrrstnnding cni rhe undvrlv~ng physical phenomena involved. The newer approach arises out of the transport concepts of Bird, Stewart, and Lightfoot (7). in which the underlying similarity of momentum, heat, and mass transport (the major physical phenomena involved in many of the unit operations) was stressed through the study of the mathematical similarities of the governing equations, and through repeated applications of those equations. Mathematically elegant, this approach has a great deal of academic appeal and has made a major contribution to strengthening the theoretical basis for much of chemical engineering research. Excellent preparation for a research career, it offers little or no practical information on equipment or engineering practice, and omits significant areas of engineering practice. This approach has been continued in Bennett and Myers (8)and Welty, Wicks, and Wilson (9), generally with less mathematics and more practical information. "Principles of Unit Operations," like its earlier edition. is intended for those who wish tcnnmhine the twoapprtwches. T h e n m b i . nntim, on itsown termi,and within thasize limitations impused b) Ixing a single vdt~me. ~

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is masonably successful.Those wishing ta use it as a text should realize, however, that it may not work well in the framework of either of the approaches cited earlier. It is this reviewer's recommendation that any attempt to adopt this text be accompanied by a s e r i ~ ous reconstruction of the cow&) in which it will be used, so as to match the philosophies of text and course(s). The hook is divided into three parts. Part I, Stage Operations, achieves some unification of the operations of distillation, liquidliquid extraction, and leaching. Also encountered in this portion of the text is a problem which recurs more noticeably in Part 11. The authors generally prefer to develop a general treatment, a t the sacrifice of physical

thesis: Priestley's ultimate failure, I submit, had the same mots as his earlier successes. Neither relate simply to an u n derstanding of the concepts or the techniques of analytical chemistry-ur to their lack. Both derive from a too sophisticated endeavor to answer questions that his contemporaries were not asking, with concepts so antique they would not again be modern fur nearly one hundred years. The book is well documented and, together with the indispensable Partington, it provides an excellent entry to the extensive Priestley IiLerature. MeEvoy's important articles, however, appeared too late for inclusion.

(4) "Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering," MeCraw-Hill, 1956, 1967, 1976 (5) "Unit Operations," Wiley, 1950 (6) "Chemical Engineering," Pergamon, 1954,1964,1977 (I) "Transport Phenomena," Wiley, 1960 (8) "Momentum, Heat, and Mass Transfer," McGraw-Hill, 1962,1974 (9) "Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer," Wiley, 1969

J o s e p h Priestley: Scientist, Theologian, and Metaphysician a special ease of Ponehon-Sa&t design methods. In Part 11, ~ o l e e u l a rand Turbulent Transport, this tendency is stronger. The authors first develop a general treatment of the transport process. For students who have never studied momentum or heat or mass transfer, this can be very mystifying. On the other hand, it is certainly more efficient than either of the other approaches, if it can be made to work, and experienced engineers should find it quite interesting. In particular here, the earlier caution about matching course and text is extremely important. Special efforts must be made to compensate for the students lack of prior experience through lectures, recitation, auxiliary reading, and homework. Any temptation to hurry this material should be avoided.

unit operations approach. I t makes up more than half the book, and effectively covers, in conventional fashion, a good variety of traditional topics in chemical engineering aperations. Bv com~arisonwith the first edition. the

Derek A. Davenport Purdue University West Lafayette, IN 47907

Erwin N. Hieberf. A. J Ihde. and R. E. Schofield. Bucknell University Press. Cranbury, NJ, 1980. v 117 pp. 21.5 X 14 cm. $12.00.

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In his recent study of Edmund Burke, Isaac Kramnick writes: The dissenters played a central and crucial role in scientific and political innovation as well. This is hest personified in the career of Joseph Priestley, who more than anyone else qualifies as the principal architect of bourgeois England. Priestley studies are flourishing (a price^ Priestley Newsletter is published in Aberystwyth) and only a fraction of these center on Priestley as chemist. The present book, a rather belated outcome of a 1974 symposium, is described precisely hy its title. Though there is some overlap, the three essays discuss Priestley's historical theology (Erwin Hiebert), science (Aaron IhdeJ and metaphysics (Robert Schofield). For the common reader of this Journal, Erwin Hiebert's article is the most remote and ~ossiblvthe least satisfsctorv. There is < y r t , 2 >1 ~, ~~ ot k (:ww. t3nclp.13~:t;e-- w 1) ri. In hi- ~ . n , p h ? + .t? thc i.rlrn. ~ U . S \ # . I . v . , ~11..~ ,i 1111 .t I , I I ~ s .tJt t t , . ~ ~ ~ <1%. 11 I 11 t l c .I& I U I I L I ~ r l ? ~1m . :h m.-t.< reductivism. His determinism was a n imitation and extension of David hart^ ley's psychological associationism. He referred to himself as a "confirmed necessarian" do not fall easily on the mind's eye. Furthermore, stretches of familiar biography mix rather uneasily with discussions of Priestley's attempt to bring about the unification of matter and spirit and to reveal the "genuine principles" of proto-Christianity free from later corruptions. Aaron Ihde engagingly addresses the question "What Did Lavoisier Know (About Oxygen) And When Did He Know It?" and "What Did Priestley Learn and Why Didn't He Believe It?" Though breaking no new ground, lhde provides a readahle and welldocumented account of the conventional wisdom concerning the much bruited and often misrepresented importance of the famous October 1774 meeting between Antoine Lavoisier and Joseph Priestley. Rohert Schofield is the ranking Priestley scholar and his essay "Joseph Priestley and the Physicalist Tradition in British Chemistry"is alively addition to the canon. His last

Mass a n d Volume Measurement: Basic Laboratory Skills, 2nd Edition John A. Bowden and Colin J. Rix, Heinmann Education, Australia, 1979. iv 64 pp. Figs. 20 X 12 cm.

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This slim volume represents a laudable attempt to transfer some of the "art" of the practicing chemist to students in basic chemistry laboratory courses. The book is designed as a self-teaching manual for

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volume measurements are supported by aset of very clear illustrations. The text describes the use of both rough and analytical balances. The section on measuring volume discusses general meniscus reading, then specifics are presented on the use of pipettes, burettes, graduated cylinders, and volumetric flasks. The book is filled with concise and wellchosen practical points to aid the student. For example the habit of thumb pipetting is soundly denounced. There are two important general areas which are somewhat slighted; these are safetv and orooer record keeoine

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cokponent stage operations, the very drastic revision of two chapters on steady-state and unsteady-state applications of molecular transport theory into a chapter on the general balance equation and a chapter on the equations of change, the introduction of the transfer unit and the effectiveness in the chapter on heat transfer, a section on cyclic transfer added to the chapter an mass transfer, and an enlarged section on fluidsolid conveying. The text ~robablvcannot be covered in full m the undcrgradnnatt wrr:c, >ltln1,hut i t rlw> ulrrrd weaIt11 111 imll~rinlillrIh( i~-.(.ckllld .I t\,~nt,inatiw<,I tho trnnipurr nnrl thr t m t operations approaches and willing to adapt their course(s) to the text approach. Donald Vives Chemical Engineering Depanment Auburn University Auburn. AL 36830

(1) "Principles of Chemical Engineering," McGraw-Hill, 1923,1927,1937 (2) "Elements of Chemical Engineering," MeGraw-Hill, 1931,1936

Products, I n 4 is not mentioned. This reviewer would suggest that some additional material be generated for students in the clinical or biological sciences. This textbook is appropriate for students in chemistry service courses, but material on proper use of weighing ijaper, spatulas, graduated or blow-out pipettes, micropipettes, and TD versus TC glassware is not found in the text. Some acknowledgement of the different properties of plastic volumetric ware could also be given. A short appendix on calibration of volumetric ware is presented clearly, and discussion of the statistics of measurement errors is integrated throuehout.

teaching assistants in the courses. Enperienced instructors will find that this text will a t least stimulate them to produce better instructional materials.

Volume 58

C. Patrick Dunne California State University, Long Beach Long Beach. CA 90840 Number 4

April 1981

A155