(Raw Materials)


Montana is blessed with a great w d t h of raw ~~~terials re- sources, including very important energy-producing re80uroe~. LITEFam CITED. (1) Barnes...
2 downloads 0 Views 10MB Size

Norember 1953

INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY (4) &mho.

J. X.. Brown, D. M.. F’ulver, B. F.,and Taylor. D. A., u.8. Geol. SUNEY. circ. 5s (1948)., (5).Davis. C. W.,and Vscher. H. C., U. E. Bur.‘Mines, Tsdi: P o w 438 (leas). (6) Dousean, C. W.. Mont. Bur. Mines, and Oeolom. Misc. C & . 9 (1947). (7) Eokel, E. C., U. 5.Geol. Survey, B d . 52% 253-6 (1813). (8) Gibson. Russell. U. 8. Geol. Survey. BuU. 956 (1918). (9) Heinrich, E. W., Mont. Bur. Mines and Geology. Mem. 28 (1949). (io) rbid.. MWW.30 (1950). (11) Heinrioh. E. W.,Mont. Bur. Mhea and Wow. M k .C d . 10 (1948). (12) Howland, A. L.,Gem&. E. M., and Jones,W. R.. U. 8. Geol. Survey. Bull. 948s (1945). (13) Howland, A. L.,Peoplea, J. W., and SamPCn, Edward. Mont. Bur. Minea and Geology. d l k . C d . 7 (1836). (14) Kemp, P. D.,and Dickermsn. M. B., U. E. Dept. Am.,Forest Service, Northern Rooky Mountsin Forest snd Range Experiment Station,Btotion P a w 25 (1960). (15) Kirby, J. G.,0.8. Bur. Minee.. Inform. Cim. 7613 (1861). (16) McGLMhsn, D. W..and byn. P; F.. Mont. Bur. Mines and Geology, Mise. C d .12 (1952). (17) M W m Mining Aasociatirm. News U t e . (18) Wen.J. T.. U. 8. Geol. Ehwey, Bull. 64OK (1917). (19)Ibid., 8476 (1936). (20) Pard-, J. T., snd Lsraen, E. S., [email protected] (1941). (21) Perry. E.E., Monk Bur. Minea F d Geolopv, Mem. 3 (19371. @a) bid.. n (i918Y. (2.3) [email protected],29 (1949). (24) Perry. E.S.,”Oil andGaiinMontsns,”unpublidmanuaoriyt, 1952. (26) Rms,C. P.. U. 8. Geol. Swwy. BuU. 955c (1950). (26) &.lea. R. H., Am. Inst. M i % kMd. Enme.. &,&lo9 (1914). (27) 8chsfer; P. A,. Mont. Bur. Mine8 and Geology, M m . 18 (1937). (ZS) U. 8. Bur. Minea. Minerd Markets Reporta. (20) Vine, J. D., and Erdrnann, C. E., U. 8. &?I. Survey, Circ. 172 (1962). (30) Winohester, D. E.,U. 8. Oeol. Survey, Bull. 729,78-91 (1923).

central part of the state should yield very important quantities of oil, a development pattern similar to other important &prcdu+ ing states may be anticipated, because Montana haa the aources to support an important industdd development. Thus, petroleum may be the trigger for an industrial expansion a t a rate much greater than otherwise might be anticipated. In any event, the mineral rmurcee of the state available to industry are in large supply. In addition to petroleum and natural gas, there are tremendous m w e s of coal, prinoipdly mbbituminous. Water power, oil shales, and possibly fissionable ~ ~ t e r iadd a l ~significantly to the energy potential. The metals have a h d y played a significant role in the development of the state. The greatest nonfemus metal mining diatrict in the United States at Butte is undergoing an expsnsion in production facilities. The camp is not fully developed a b e the 4000foot level, and valuable ores peraiat well below 4wo feet. The Boulder batholith, mother of the Butte ores, is not completely explored. Copper, zinc, lead, manganese, and d v e r are the most important mineral resolllces derived from this area. Tungsten and chromium are present in lsrge quantities in a grade which now appears to be at the margin of economical recovery. The nonmetallic minerals have only been touched. The supply of constructional materials is virtually unlimitd. Vermiculite, lime, cement, gypsum, and talc have been developed, but in all caes the paaibilities are great for utilization ultimately. In many other fields, mour- are available for an expanding industriali~ation or to supply strategic minerals in a national emergency. Among the important pasaibilities are fluorspur, bentonite, barite, amphibole aebestos graphite, and clays. Montana is blessed with a great w d t h of raw ~ ~ ~ t e r i arels sources, including very important energy-producing re80uroe~.

p!!!qN

M(

L I T E F a m CITED

R.. Bull. Am. Asaoe. Pdroleum Gwl.. 37, 84+4 (1963). (2) Binyon, E. O., U. S. Bur. Minei. Repl. Impst. 4880 (1952). (3) Clsbuph. 8. E., and Armatrong. F. C.. U. 8. Geol. SIUVW. Bull. 888b (1950).

2443

(1) Barnes. T.

Rmouvmo for =view May 1, 1858

m

Accsrrm A u w t 12. 1853.

(Raw Materials)

MORRIS F. STUBBS

a

AND

ROBERT H. WEBER

NEW b5IICO MSTlRTTE 01 MNlNG AND TBCHNOLOGY, SOCORRO,

T

HE first recorded interest in the availability of raw materials from New Mexico dates from the time of Francisco Vasques de Coronado. During 1540 thia bold explorer searched in vain for the famed “Seven Cities of Cibola,” supposed to be filled with gold, silver, and precious jewels. Coronado failed in hia attempt to find the fabulous citiea, but those who followed him found a “land of enchantment,“ rich in valuable raw materials, posseeaing an ideal climate, and endowed with an abundance of energy in the forms of petroleum, natural gas, coal, and sunshine. No single region possessea all the factors desirable for the establishment of industry and, in common with most of the West, distances in New Mexico from natural resource to plant and consumer are usuallv . lsree. - However. a larne number of extractive industries have been developed in the state! production for th I

..

.

N. M.

fiscal year ending June 30, 1952, amounting to $264,617,001. This was divided as follows: petroleum and natural gaa $169,826,420, metalliw $55,368,656, and nonmetallics 89,421,926 (14). Good highways have now opened up many hitherto isolated area rich in resources. The state ia developing rapidly and hae practically doubled ita population since 1920, the 1950 census giving B figure of 677,152. With the entire expanding W&t 8 8 B potential market, further utilization of abundant raw materials offers a real challenge and opportunity to those of pioneering spirit who are willing to carry out adequate exploratory work and possess the required ingenuity and engineering know how. Figure 1 ehowa the principal citiea and railroad linea. It is riven to assist in visuslieinn the locations of the resoureen dis-

.,.

,

.,

,

.

.

2444

INDUSTRIAL A N D ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY

Vol. Is, No. 11

bmrd feet were cut out by 120 mills. At present moat of the sawdust and other waste materials are used as fuel or burned am trash. Nearly all the mills are small, making naate utilixation h d t . However, Bome utilixationof foreat waate as chemical raw materials should develop am the steady population incream of the West opens up the necessary co&g marketa. Pambilitiea include the production of kraft pulp, wood molaaees, and M V d

stoles.

MINERALPetroleum m d R a b d D u Petroleum, natural gas, and natural gas liquida are among the most important raw matmiah available to the chemiaal industry in New Mexico. The oil and gas induatriw are ale0 among the moat important factors in the emnomy of the state. New Mexica ranka sinth in crude oil production and seventh in natural gas production in the United States. The average production of crude oil for the first half of 1962 was 160,400 b u d s M y (8). Production has doubled during the past 10 yearn. EstLnated proved remrves have increased fivefold in the past 10 yearn and BJB nearly equal to the cumulative production from 1924 to 1961. The value of the crude oil, dry gas, and natural gas liquida prOauced in 1861 amounted to approximately $189,830,000.

Figun 1. I&

"

Map of Now Mexico

AORICWLTURAL PRODUCTS

WhileagricdtureinNew Mexiwiaconiinedtodryfarmingand to arean where irrigation is available, it is one of the major indub tries of the state. Farm producta produced in 1960 sold for $74,327,143 (U). The 1951 production figures listed in Table I(M) include agricultural cmps and producta p r o d from thprm which are available as chemical raw materials.

Tebla I. Production in 1861

The availabdity of.deaert plsnta is of real intereat. Growth of plants in arid regions is, of c o w , slow; hence all deaert plant projecta must be planned d u l l y in order to ennure a sustained yield (7). However, utilisation of planta which yield specid subatsnw of value+ for which demand is limited, merita spedal conaideration. For example, the meosote huh, which gmm in p a t profusion in the southern half of the Rio Grande valley in New Mexico,is a commercialsourceof eordihydmguaisraticacid, a valuable antioxidant for fate and oils (3). This bush has an aoid content of 9 to 12%, and there is no important lose of acid after harvesting. The bush ia also a potantkl ~ourceof varnish & and stock feed.

FOREBT PRODUCT8 The total forested ares of New Mexico amounta to 20,cOl,000 s c r e s , o f w h i c h 6 , 1 0 1 , 0 0 0 a ~ a r e w n m d e r e d s a ( ~ ) .The forests are generally found at elevations of 7000 to 11,600 feet, where the average annual&all is approximately 19 inchen. The saw timber lvea contsina about 130 qeeiea of treea: 82% Ponderosa pine, 10% Douglas &,3% whita fir, and 3% Engelman spruce. Other pines and firs make up the remaining 2%. Of the saw timber area 3,466,000 auaa are d&ed B L ~wmm d l and contain an eatimsted m e of nearly 8.6 billion board feet. The remaining ares is inaccessible or the t i m k L too scattered for profitable logjng. In 1948 some 124,608,000

Figam

a.

P*trohum- and Natural OuRoducing k

The chief producing regions, shown in F i i 2 (I, $4), are the New Mexico portion of the Permisn hasin in the southeastsrn part of the atata and the BanJusn basin in the northweatern parb. The 8an Juan basin is a rapidly developing region which has become an important producer only during the past few years. At preeent this field contributes approximately7% of the oil and 30% of the gaa produced in the atata. Table I1 (IS)summarizes the recent and cumulative production, together with estimated pmvedmaemes. There an, eight reline- and thirteen extraction planta in the state, located as shown in Figure 3 (16, le). Three refineries are topping plante and five are both topping and meking. The IS fineries have a crude oil operating capacity of 20,060 barrels psr day. The five cracking plants have a total aapacity of 6000 barrela of cracked gasoline per day. The productm of the planta are gamline, kemaine, gns oil, fuel oil, and asphalt. The thirteen

.

Novembm 1953

INDUSTRIAL A N D ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY

shu9d.an at the close of the war, but is now being regctivsted. At present there is mueasing demand for helium to provide inert atmaepheres for welding.

244s

r

xegources

The Bneyena field in Harding County, southweat of Clayton in the n e t e m part of the state (~igure a), is the center of a small but expanding carbon dioxide industry. In 1951 136,470,000cubic feet of carbon dioxide gas were extracted and cumulative pmduction amounted to 589,553,ooO cubic feet from 1946 to 1961(18). Production is nomewhat aaasonal, inasmuch as nearly all the gas is aold as dry ice for use in refripation, and is more than donbled from June through October. The production of carbon dioxide could he expanded if additional marketa were available. Some carbon dioxide is also found neer &tancia, Torrance County (Figure 2). The continned steady g r u d of the petroleum indusw in New Mexico, togethex with a rapidly growing population, should provide a stimulus for the establishment of a number of petr0chemical industries in the near future. Intereating possibilities are the production of elemental sulfur from the soul gss of both the Permian and 8an Juan btxin.8, production of hydrogen for ammonia ayntheaie, and the chlorination of hydrocarbons. Phce the preparation of this manuscript, two sulfur plants have been placea in operation; one in the 8an Juan baain is producing 30 tons of sulfur daily, and one in the Permian bssin 12.5 tona. A third plant, under oonstrudon in the Permian baain, is mheduled to pmduce 100 tons a day.]

m o u ~ ~

Fi-

3. N a t d OM Pipdin-. P ~ t r o h r n Rgru.*...ndoUbnBIackPhn~

extraction plants produced 3,881,178b m l a of gasoline, 1,410,840 of butane, and 758,273 of propane in 1951 (8). An theee SgUres show, moSt Of the CNde Oil produced is not fmed in the state. A large percantage is expmted by pipelines to refineries in Texas and nome of the re6ned pmducts are returned to New Mexiw for d e . Most of the natural gas is Efewk exported, chieEy to California. The recently completed line from the 8an Juan basin now supplements the line from the PenniSn basin. The location of the gas pipelines within the stat% shown in Figure 3,indicate t h availability ~ of natural gss. An extension of the gas network could easily provide all populated nraw of the state with ample natursl gas. The five carbon black plants opera% in New M&w are all located in the HobbsEunice area in the southeastem part of the state as shown in Figure 3. During 1951 (8)56,2M,EOl,CWlcubic feet of gas were used to produca 112,W6,862 pound8 of carbon black. About half of the pmdnct is exported, chidy to Great Britain, and mast of the remaioder to the domaatic Nbber industry. Natural gas from the Rattlemake field, north of Shiprock (Figure 2), contains 6 to 7% of helium. Re8emea are estimated at 12 billion cubic feet of ga% from which 788,CWl,oOOcubic feet of helium can be extraotad. Cumulative production from 1942 hsa amounted to 2,243,414cubic feat (18). Production is, of course, controlled by the Federal Government. An extraction plant, built by the Government at Ship& during World War 11, was

*

TabIe 11:

Produotion .ndProved R u M m hodootion. 1951

W. bbl.

52,7~,000

Figun 4. -tion of Minabla Rweww of Bituminous and SubMtuminoua C o d

C"rnUlatlvo

7a4.819,~~~ (igz4-m

Cod. Although conutituting "the [email protected] wmued nolvw of enetgy in New Mexico" (17), the 4 deposits of the s t a b have been exploited to a decreasing extant in the paat two decades. Production for the 6acal year ending June 30, 1952,WBB 844,095 tons of 4of all graden (14). Total estimatedreaewes remaining in January 1948 were 61,515,761,538tons (17), of which approximatsly 50% may he considered recoverable under prment atandards of mining. This total includes coals of subbituminous, bituminous, and anthraciteranka to depths of 3OOO feet. figure 4

2446

Vol. 45, No. 11

INDUSTRIAL A N D ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY

(17) shows the distribution of d-bearing areas by rank, with the exception of anthracite, which ocaurn only in minor quantitim

in the cerillos field. Bituminous coals in several fields are of excellent coking quality, the most d v e known depoeits of which occur in the Raton field in the northeastern portion of the state.

NO"I'AL&IC

MINERAM AND ROCKS

Nonmetallic minerals and mckn include the minerds and rockforming mineral -gaten valuable chiefly for their contained nonmetallic elements or compounds, as well as donstructiOn materiala, which, although not primarily of interest as chemical raw materials, may be important in the construction of the plant, 01m v e as Dhvaica~media in some Droce88ed un8d bv the rheminsl

SJine Compounds. N a t d salts of potaasiUm, sodium, and as magnesium occur in c o m m d l quautitiw in sewal -, ahOWn in &We 5. Th8 potaSh-beSring heda of the Carlebad basin are of particular interest ( I B ) , inasmuch as they supply 90 to 95% of the annual d o d o potash production. Production from the four plants in operation in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1962, totaled 7,017,814 tone (14), averaging about 21% KIO. Fhductiou from the five plants now operating in expected to approximate 1,660,000 tous KsO equivalent for the calendar year 1953 (6). A t current rates of mining, a productive life of at leaat 65 years in predicted for the known published moverable rn -6 of nearly 100,000,000 tons of KIO(6). Active exploration, in thin and outlying portions of the Carlsbad negment of the Permian salt basin, in rapidly expanding the known reserves. Recent press releases forecast the establishment of two more mines and reheries in a newly developed area in Lea County. The principal potash salts, sylvite (KCI) and langbeinite (rr$o,.aMg80+), are associated with halite (NaCI) in beds that lie 800 to 15M) feet below the surface in the producing area. Mining in by highly mechanized conventional underground methods that permit high productive capacitjea. The crude and refined products, designed largely for agricultural usage, include potassium chloride ranging from 50 to 63% G O (80 to !%.CIS% KCI), manure salts of about 25% K,O grade, potassium sulfate averaging 90to 95% W O ,and a langbeinite concentrate with a minimum sna?veiS Of 96% s;sO, 2MgS0, (6,e). Waste brines containing magnesium chloride from one refinery will be proceased for the production of hydrochloric acid and magnwia in a plant now under construction. Owing to limited local market demandn, a relatively small production of common salt (NaCI) originates in New Mexico, despite the availability of tremendoun r e m e s of rock salt in the Permian salt basin (Figure 5). During the fiscal year 1952, 7551 tons of salt were marketed (14), the bulk of which was obtained as salvage from wastes of the potsah refineries in the CarleM district. Salt m t e formed by solar evaporation of shallow lake brines in northwestern Cstmn County, and near Willard in Torrance County, have been nources of sporadic minor production since prehistoric times. Most of the salt produced in the state in used as a livestock fwd supplement. Sodium and magnesium sulfatea in the brines and natural pre-

.
e

.

F4'ure 1. Dewsit. of Fluompar. U t . and . Lithium Minal.

I

.

INDUSTRIAL AND ENG INEERING CHEMISTRY

November 1853

-

cipitates ofsalt lakes in Torrance and D o h Ana counties have not been commerciallyutilized,although aome consideration h a i n given to their potential value (Bo). Gypum and SIJhrr. Cypwm is widely distributed in the central and southern portions of the state (Figure 6, 90). The material omum in thick beds of rock gypsum of high purity at a number of places. Other occurrence8 include the ,noted White Sands area west of Alamogordo, in which gypsum concentrated as dune sands, and several local deposita of gypsite. With increasing depth away from the outcrop, many of the gypsum beds p d e into anhydrite, anhydrous calcium sulfate. Transportation costa to the larw consuming centern outside the state have restricted the prcdnction of gypsum and gypsum pmducta. Current opera tions are limited to a single producer of ground agricultural g y p sum near I a n L m ,Valencia County. Recent shortages of elemental sulfur have stimulated reeearch into economical methods for extracting the element from gypsum and anhydrite. Anhydrite is preferred for ita higher sulfur content. The perfection of such a proceas would place new importance on the extmwive ~ e 8 e ~ 1of e sthese minerals that exist in tbia area. Occurrences of elemental d fare ~of limited ~ extent. I a w grade deposita of native sulfur near Jemee 8pIingS, Sandoval County, are reported to have yielded about 100 tons of relined sulfur (Bo). Sulfur has also heen found in well cuttings near Artesia (80). The possibility of extracting sulfur from the sour gases of the Pan Juan and Permian basin areas has been mentioned above Fluorappr, Barite, Lithium Minerals. Some of the more important actual and potential producing di&ricta are shown in Figure 7. Flnorspar (18) Sggregated 19,426 ton8 of combined metallurgical and acid grade concentrates in the fiscal year 1952 (14), all of which was shipped to consumers outaide the state. The 2400 tons (14)of ground barite concentrates produced during the Eperiod represent only a fraction of the potential annual yield of &e known deposita in thia area. Production of the lithium-bearing silicates, lepidolite and spodumene, which amounted to 3026 and 1727 tons, respectively, in the fiscal year 1951. was ahamlv reduced to 1055 tons of modumene in the fiscal year’1952 (14): ~ S Limeatone and Dolomite. Extensive unaaseseed I W ~ N of these rocks crop out in namw tracts in the mountain belts oi the

central and ~ ~ u t h m t a rportion n of the state, and over broad meaa in the hi& plains to the east. Detailed chemical Btudiea of theee mks have not been made, but they are known to range irom pure nonmagneeaian limestones, through dolomite, u) argillaeeoua limestoom suitable for cement rock. Clay. Among the variety of c l a p and clay shales known to occur in this region, only t h o ~ esuitable for brick and, We manufacture, and those of m frsctory type (&e days), have awnsuet G e d commercial exploitation. Bentonite;found a t a number of localities in the western bslf of the state, ha been used in drilling muds and as an adaorbent. Hi-alumina lowailicn clays, including those of kaolin type, appear to have a limited occurrence. Pumice, Perlite, Scoria. New Mexico ranks first in the PICduction of both perlite and pumice in the United States. Semi of the more important aourcea of these materials, together with scoria, are indicated on Figure 8 (4). Although primarily of interest as lightweight aggregatesin concrete and plaster, many new u ~ e are 8 being developed that will extend the mope oftheir utility. The 274,121 tons of pumice produced in fiscal year 1952 (14) was about half that produced in the previous year. Most of tbia total was used in the manufacture of lightweight concrete building blocks; a smaller fraction consisted of abrasive grade m a W . Crude perlite production has shown continued expansion to the fiscal year 1952 total of 69,345 tons (14). Most of the perlite is shipped as a crushed and &ed aggregate to expanding planta located near the consuming centers, although an increasing amount ia being expanded in the state. npanded perlite offem several advantages as an inert carrier, extender, or 6ller in a number of indwtrial products. Scoria production in f i ~ year ~ ~ l 1952 was 217,300 b n S (14). Principal U ~ B Bare as railroad ballast and lightweight conwete aggregate.

mpL1c 0-

~

. *

F~QUN8. Principal Depmita of d8cork

Pumice. Perlite,

?A47

Copper, Zinc, Lead. Ores of these elements are prominent in many of the metalliferoue districts, a few of which are shown in Figure 9. The bulk of the current production comes, however, from a concentratmd cluster of deposits in the Silver City BIBB. During the fiscal year 1952 (14), 73,954 tons of copper, 50,629 tons of zinc, and 13,205 tons of lead were produced. Most of the O ~ contain E the metals as sulfide compounds which are meohanically concentrated before melting to the elemental metah. A smelter at Hurley produces Iire-rehed copper, whereas all zinc and lead ores and concentrates aresmelted and refinedoutaide the state. Iron, Manpiese, Molybdenum, Tung.tsn. Figure 10 illus trates the more important districta containing deposits of iron and theferroslloy metals. Iron occura 88 the oxides hematite and magnetite in a number of deposita (11), but production ia usually s d l and irregular, t o t d i g but 1472 tons in the hcal year 1952 (14). The production of manganiferoue ironores during the m e period wca 48,000 tons. Manganese production during the heal year 1952 was 3352 t o n s a twofold inorease over the previous year. Reactivation of still other operations should further incresse the production of manganese ores and concentrates within the next few years. Molybdenum sulfide concentrates containing 701 tons of molybdenum were produced during the fiscal year 1952 (14). Although t h e was no recorded production of tungsten ores during this period, active exploration was under way at several proprties, and Borne sorted ore wan stockpiled.

.

a

I N D U B T B I A L A N D 'B:N(P TWBa FN 0 C H B M~I ST R Y

-

--*-.

10. Imn,

Vol. 46,,No.l.1

Molybdenum, a d

Unnium, Vmudiam, T.nt.lum. BeqWmn, R u e tsined in d l Iota an by-products from mica operatiow in the Figure 11 ilhutrate.some of the principal o o o ~ ~ o f t h e mpegmstits distriats of the northern portion of the ltata (10). rare elements. Ulmimn-v-vmadium depwita in the recsntly dis (hoall shipments d mescontaining the rare earth m i n d basto o * . e n d @anta dlatriot (31) are biug rapidly aevelopea for nsedte have been made from the Red Cloud mine in h w h production. The production reportea for the Eno8l year 1962 cou4tJ.. 00nd.ted of aaOa tons of vanadium (14) from depositsin BanJuan WATER S-Y County. Aithougb no tgDtelum wan produced d d g thin p i o d , The l o d adability of aq adequate water aupply will be one mimolits and tantdite-columbite couc~ntTateafrom the Earding of the principal factors inauencing the location of &mid plants miue, Taas County, supplied the bulk of the domeatio tsntalum in New Mexico. Figtun 12 (a) ahown the principal atreems and produetion during World War I1 (8). Beryllium produotion from mmvoirn, and the declsred murid water basins. Stream flow is the samsmiue totaled 140 tom of beryl in the fiscal year 1962 largely intmmittent in cberacter, peak run& omurriug d h g (14). Deposita of the beryllium minerals helvite and danslite, in the spring tpsvr of MOW paoka ie the [email protected] elevatiw and for northwentam Sierrs CQUnty, have not been c o n u ~ ~ & I exly ehmt p i o d s following the heavier mmmer ploited. Monarite, tantdite-oolumbite, and beryl have bean obJ~Y,

INDUSTRIAL AND ENGINEBRING CHEMISTRY

N o v e d o r lQS3

AugwA, and September. T b eodating maemoh were developed for Lrigatiop and mnnicipal supply purposes, with essentially no provinion for industrial wage. The surfam waters of the State a t l a r e are allotted on the bsaia of prim approphtion, hence are aveilable to induntry only through purchase of the exiatihgrights. Ground water suppliea are intluend by a wide range of gemlogic and hydrologic variables that lesd to opposite extremea of availability in c l d y adjacent arean. The more extausive h o t s of high capacity wells are t h w in which Permian l i n m t p e n or Tertiary to Quaternary valley fill nerve an aquifm. Explmtatim of ground waters witbin the declarsd baninn in subject to contruln imponed by the State w e a r (a)to provide the maximum continued economic yield from the more highly developed gmmd waterresewoira. Cextainofthedealaredbasinsareopentothe filinn of apdicationn to apuromkte the mound waters therein. .- w& others are (9). AcImOwmDG~

with w,the *to of the New Mexico of the Bureau of Minen and

The a u t h of membara

& h ~ m

&a5

Mind Resonrces. LITERA=

CITED

2449

(6)%hw. W. B.. "Potauh in the cubbd B..in." PPI read at 1stSouthwmt MinenlConfemce, Mbuquerque, N. M.. Nov. 6. 1962.

R) Duiabere, P. C., T. No. 3. 269 (1962).

J . &i 4,.,

.

(8)~P.C.,Oil~J.,51,No.l2 (9)

(iwa).

ROC""

Jabrm. R. H., New Mexico Bur.

Minas and Mineral Rem-. BUU.25 (laaS). (10) Jabrm. R. H.. Tmru. A-n I&. a 4 * Md. Enots.. 190, 46-60

(1961).

V. C.. Unis. Nao Mea. , Pubs.W.,No. 2. 1-a48 (1949). (12) New Meda, CoU. Am. Meoh. Art.. Dept. Agr. Ewnomiaa and (11) Kelley.

OtherRnvm (1962). (13) New Meria, Oil snd asS Enginearing Committe%,Annmal Faport. up to snd including 1961. (14) New Merim State lnare&or of Mines. 40th Annual Report Wear ending June 80,1962). (16) oil aas J.. mpp1-t to 49, NO. a0 (1960). (16)Ibid,Npplement to 51, No. 4 (1962). (17) Read,C.B.. Dutinsr. R. T , Wood.G. H., and Zapp, A. D., U. 8. Gml. Buneu. circ. E9 (1960). (18) R o h k . H. E.,Johnmn, C. H.,snd Hshn, A. D.. Nan Mexico Bur. Mines and Minersl Remurcea. BUR.21 (1946).

(Raw Materials)

WYOMING

-

OCATED about midway between the industrial Mid-& and the rapidly pawing Went cosat, Wyoming,with a wealth of raw matsrials for the chemical i n d e , ia in ageogaphically &ate& position. Transportgtional f d t i e n by rail and highway are excellentand the tendency toward dwentzalisstionof industry for necurity reamna favors p a w t h of chemical industry and increaaed production of chemical raw materisls Within the atate. O u ~ d i n are g the hydmcarbons, coal, petroleum, and natural gas, which occur in abundance m Wyoming. The coal rmrven 01% unparalleled nomen of raw material for liquid fudn and chemicals including aromatics, not to mention their power potential. !l'hm coupled with inorganio mineral raw materiala, particularly t h w for heavy chrnoical and fertiliser production, ILBBuTe wider future industrial [email protected] The 6rnt unit of a majm chemical industry, the trona mine and proceasing plant of the Intermountain Chemical Co. in the Green River Bwin, bas bsen in operation for m a l years and in undergoing subetemtial +on. Bulfur p r o d u d from sour natural gaa offers a bani, chemical raw matsrial which, although not at present available for new uea, will, it i n believed, be produced in the future in [email protected] enter new fields. Ores of ntrategic metals-titanium (19,$8,87,89), cbmmium

(6,8, JT), manganese (S9). uranium (48,64,78, 80), vanadium (1,a), and tungsten % (w ar+materiala for electsometallurgical indu!Jtriea, are known to c a w in Wyoming in greater m lesaer degree and in some instances neem to await only availability of er for development. Au abundance of low-cost cheap electric m ooal will in time make available t h e r m a l 4 d c power supplemenhydroelectric power for procesSing thean remnrces. Fluorspar (W) deposits owur m the northeantem part of the

state. Salines (831, sodium sulfate (&), and magnesium d a t e (a) are found 88 lake deposits in o& mid regions. Qeologically, Wyoming con& of mountain ranges neparated by intermontane baains filled with thick deposita of SedLnentary rake. M& of the b e are underlaid with one or more beds of coal. It in slso in the bssins that the oil mmm. Trona and the d i n e s , 88 well ae oil shale d m t a , originate in the dimenta of the baains. pbmphate deposita, which are also of edmentmy origin, crop out in weatarn snd central Wyoming, w h e the nedimenta have been thrust up on the BanLa of uplifts,or exposed by folding and emdon. Such or= of metala a8 are found in Wycming are, on the other hand, for the most part associated with the pm-Cambrian rocka which form the cores of the mountsina or in