Sanatana Pharma as final. All the sects, all the philosophical systems, appeal to the Shruti as the final authority, determining every dispute. The Smriti or Pharma Shastra, is founded on, and stands next in authority to, the Shruti, and consists of four great works, written by Sages, the chief contents of which are laws and regulations for the carrying on o f individual, family, social and national life. Hindu Society is founded on, and governed by, these laws. They are : —
Manu Smrtih or Manava Dharma Shdstram. The Institutes o f Mann. or
Ydjnavalkya Smrtih. 3. 4.
^T?3T%r^r3r^r%: ShaAkha Likhita Smrtih. very great-minded and o f great splendour, belonging to the race o f this Manu, the descendant o f Svayambhu, have each produced
,Y5^ -beings.’ ’
v * * / v# ** W*
27 thehVgain in a larger, and then in a tank, a pondT
a river, the sea, and ever the Fish grew and filled its receptacle.
Then the Manu knew that this Fish
was connected with His own life-work, and when the time came for Him to save the seeds of life from a great flood, He entered a ship with the Rishis and the necessary life-seeds, the great Fish appeared, and drew the vessel to the world where lay the Manu’ s work. With the coming o f the Fish began the great evolution of animal life in the world. 2 .
u r m a
Tortoise.— A s
Vishnu, supported the whirling mountain, which churned the great sea o f matter, that it might give forth the necessary forms. The Tortoise is the type of the next great step in evolution. 3 .
a r a h a
the Boar.— The earth was sunk
below the waters, and Vishnu raised it up, giving, in the Boar, the type of the great mammalian king dom which was to flourish on the dry land. Modern
Science recognises these three great
stages of evolution, each marked in Hinduism by an Avatara. 4 .
a r a s i m h a
the Man-Lion.— This was the
Avatara that came to free the earth from the tyranny of the Paityas. Into this race a child, Prahlada,
ow an action is not quite so simple a thing as 'it looks.
I f I ask a person, “ W hy do you walk
into the tow n ?” he will say:
“ / wanted a pair of
shoes, and I thought I could get them there;”
wanted to see a freind and I thought he was in the tow n;” and so on, in many ways, but always: :tlJ wanted and / thought therefore I acted." These three are always found together. Now a want is what is called a desire; we desire to get somthing— that is the first stage;then we
think how to get it— that is the second stage; then we act so as to get it—-that is the third stage. This is the regular order; every action has a thought behind it and every thought has a desire behind it. These three things— action, thought, desire— are the three threads that are twisted into the cord of karma.
Our actions make the people round us
happy or unhappy; if we make them happy, we have sown happiness like a seed, and it grows up into happiness for ourselves; if we make them unhappy, we have sown unhappiness like a seed, and .it grows up intc unhappiness for ourselves. If we do cruel things, we sow cruelty like a seed, and it grows up into cruelty to ourselves.
If we do kind
* “ Now verily man is thought-formed; as man in this world thinks, so, having gone away hence, he becomes. ” * Mahubkaratam, Shanti Parra, cclxi-cclxi. j Hri/irt@arauya)w]> 17. iv—5. *lbid, 6. X Chhdndugn»]}. I ll, xir— 1.
^ ?Tir ?ra ?rr ^rsfw3TRrr% 3>frr¥R h
^— n V\
|(|J . . ( 595 . §L w ^ fC elb tch i smiled and said:
‘ ‘ Cover this body up
with salt; bring here a herd o£ cows; they shall lick off the salt and flesh together; and ye shall take the bones which only ye require; and so naught o f this body shall be wasted.”
And this was done
and Vrittra fell before the might born o f thatwondrous sacrifice.* The Jiva is led up to this point by the teach ings of the Rishis, who bid him'make sacrifices o f his possessions for a good that he does not receive immediately: they show him that when a man sacri fices to others, his gifts return to him increased in the future.
man is to sacrifice some of his
goods, which may be looked on as outlying piece* o f himself, and he is promised that this act o f self-denial shall bring him increased possessions N ext he was taught to make similar sacrifices and to deny himself present enjoyments, in order that he might lay up for himself increased happiness on the other side of death in Svarga.
1 hus the
practice of sacrificing was made habitual, and man, b y sacrificing his possessions in the hope o f reward, prepared to learn that it was his duty to sacrifice himself in the service of others, and to find in the jo y o f that service his reward. *
Luc. cit, V ana P rav a, c.
■ e° i & X
111 /; v ,
; Another lesson taught in these sacrifices was
the relation man bears to all the beings round him ; that he is not a solitary, isolated life, but that all lives are inter-dependent, and can only prosper permanently as they recognise this inter-dependence. The Rishis taught him to sacrifice daily to the Devas, to Rishis, to ancestors, to men and animals, and showed him that as all these made sacrifices to enrich his life, he had incurred to them a debt, a duty, which he must pay by sacrifice.
As he lives
on others, he must, in common honesty, live for others. Sacrifice is right, a thing that ought to be done, that is owed. Finally, as the JR a recognises his parentage, his identity in nature with Ishvara, sacrifice be comes happiness, a delight, and the pouring out o f life for others is felt as a joyous exercise of innate divine powers.
Instead of seeing how much
he can take and how little he can give, he tries to see how little he can take and how much he can give.
He begins to look very carefully into what
he takes for the support o f his own up&dhis, and seeks to reduce to the lowest point the suffering inflicted by the breaking up of lower forms for his support.
He abandons the foods
amusements which inflict pain on sentient beings
and tries to become “ the friend o f all creatures.’ ile realises that while the preying of animals on animals, of men on men, and the slaughter
animals by men for food or sport, are necessary at certain stages o f evolution for the development of needed faculties and powers, men should gra dually evolve from these, and cultivate the faculties o f gentleness, sympathy and tenderness, regarding the weaker as younger Selves to be helped, instead o f as victims to be immolated. As a man lives in such thoughts o f his non separateness from younger Selves, he begins to feel more really his non-separateness from elder Selves and from the Universal Parent, Jshvara. Slowly he realises that his true function is to live for others, as Ishvara lives for all, and that his true happiness lies in becoming a channel in which the fife of ishvara is flowing, a willing instrument to do the will o f Ishvara.
Then every action becomes
a sacrifice to ishvara, and actions no longer bind him. Thus the law of sacrifice becomes also the law o f liberation. ststt:
srarqra: i sr: i
■ e° l & x
t e production o f food ; rain proceedeth from sac rifice ; sacrifice ariseth out o f action. “ iKnow thou from Brahma (the Veda) action groweth, and Brahma (the Veda) from the Imperish able, cometh. Therefore Brahman, the all permeat1Qg> is ever present in sacrifice.’ ” r%i% *T3T?cr % r ff m3 *
%grcrr: i n*
’l They who long after success in action on earthsacrifice to the Devas ; for in brief space, verily, m this world o f men, success is born of action.” siTsrr ^rsirJTT^R * ? c * r
m nnr: i
tt* vra nr: strttHr n un
“ 0 Kings, Indra, Varuna, to this our sacrifice be ye turned by offerings and homage,....... ........... . “ 0 Indra, Varuna, plenteous wealth and food and blessing give us......................................................
u This my song may it reach Indra, Varuna, and by its force bring sons and offspring. ^rr^nrr sresrrcg; 1
* Akagavad-Cffta, iv, 12.
it f liigrMn. VII. I.xxxir, I.
■ G° f e X