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J. Chem. Eng. Data
Molar Excess Volumes of Binary and Ternary Mixtures Containing Chloroaniline Vinod Kumar Sharma,' Prem Paul Singh, and Sanjeev Maken Department of Chemistry, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124 001, India
Molar excess volumes, VE,for m-chloroaniline + benzene, + toluene, + o-xylene, + m-xylene, and p-xylene, m-chloroaniline + benzene + toluene, and m-chloroaniline + benzene + o-xylene have been measured as a function of composition at 308.15 K. VE values for the binary mixtures are negative for all the systems over the entire range of composition and for an equimolar composition vary in the order o-xylene > toluene > m-xylene > benzene > p-xylene. On the other hand while VE values for m-chloroaniline benzene toluene are negative over the whole composition range, those for m-chloroaniline + benzene + o-xylene vary from positive to negative depending on the mole fraction of each of the components.
density/ (pm.cm-9 present work lit.
Table 1. Densities at 298.15 K density/ ( p c m 4 )
Introduction A binary mixture is formed by the replacements of like contacts in the pure state by unlike contacts in the mixture. Consequently if interactions in a ternary i + j k mixture are closely dependent on the interactions in i + j , j + k, and k i mixtures, then it appears that it should be possible to predict V:k values of ternary mixture from the corresponding data for constituent binary mixtures.
Experimental Section m-Chloroaniline (Aldrich, purris-quality with a stated purity of >99 mol 5%) was used without further purification. Benzene (Ranbaxy, analytical reagent grade) was purified (I) of thiophene by shaking it with 15% of its volume of concentrated sulfuric acid. It was then shaken with 10% sodium carbonate solution, washed with distilled water, dried over anhydrous calcium chloride, and then fractionally distilled and stored over sodium wire. Toluene, o-xylene, and m-xylene (Ranbaxy, analytical reagent grade) were purified in the same manner as described for benzene except that during shaking with concentrated sulfuric acid the temperature was kept below 30 "C (I)by occasional cooling. The purities of the purified compounds were checked by measuring their densities at 298.15 0.01 K, and these agreed to within A5 X 1odg ~ mwith - ~their corresponding literature values (2-5) as reported in Table 1.
Molar excess volumes for binary and ternary mixtures were measured in a V-shaped dilatometer explained elsewhere (6). The temperature of the water thermostat was controlled to 0.01 K. The change in the level of the liquid in the dilatometer was measured by a cathetometer with a precision of fO.OO1 cm. The uncertainty in our measured VE values is 0.003 cm3 mol-' at the worst.
Results and Discussion The molar excess volumes VE for various binary and ternary mixtures are given in Tables 2 and 3 and plotted in Figures 1 and 2. The VE values for binary mixtures were
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Figure 1. Molar excess volumes, VE,of the m-chloroaniline (1) + benzene (2) toluene (3) mixture at 308.15 K.
fitted to the equation
where x1 is the mole fraction of component 1and A(n) ( n = 0-2) are parameters that were evaluated by the method of least squares. The values are recorded together with the standard deviation a( VE) of VE defined by
where VE is the experimentally measured value of VE and VE(ca1cd) is the value calculated from eq 1, m is the number of experimental values, and n is the number of adjustable parameters in eq 1, in Table 2. 0 1994 American Chemical Society
Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, Vol. 39, No. 2,1994 239
Table 2. Molar Excess Volumes of Binary Systems and Parameters in Equation 1 Along with Standard Deviations U( P)at 308.15 K x1
Molar excess volumes for ternary i expressed (7) as
L Figure 2. Molar excess volumes, VE,of the m-chloroaniline ( 1 ) + benzene ( 2 ) + o-xylene (3) mixture a t 308.15 K. Table 3. Molar Excess Volumes of Ternary Systems and Parameters Along with Standard Deviations u( P)at 308.15 K x1
x i x j x k [ x A i j k ( n( x) j - xk)nx? (3) n-0
where xi and x j are the mole fractions of the ith and jth components in the i + j + k mixture and Aijdn) (n = 0 - 2 ) etc. are the parameters characteristic of the i + j + k mixture. The Parameters Ajk(n) for j + binary mixtures were taken from the literature (8).The parameters in eq 3 were evaluated by fitting X data to
4- Aijk(l) ("j - % k l x i + Aijk(2) ( x j - xd2"i (4)
by a le ast-squares method. The values along with the standard deviation u(VE) of VE are recorded in Table 3. The choice of n to have 0 - 2 or 3 values was dictated by consideration that the maximum deviation um( VE) of VE satisfies the relation um( VE) d 2 4 VE). There are no literature values of VE for the binary and mixtures withwhich to compare our resdte. vvalues for studied binary mixtures are negative over the entire range of composition and for an equimolar mixture vary in the order o-xylene > toluene > m-xylene > benzene > p-xylene. VE values for m-chloroaniline ( 1 ) benzene ( 2 ) + toluene (3) mixtures are negative over the whole composition range; the
240 Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, Vol. 39, No.2,1994 sign of VE for m-chloroaniline (1) + benzene (2) + o-xylene (3) mixtures are dictated by the relative proportion of various components.
Acknowledgment The authorswould like to thank the Head of the Chemistry Department for providing laboratory facilities. Literature Cited (1) Vogel, I. A. A Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistry, 3rd ed.; English Book Society and Longman Group: Harlow, U.K., 1950. (2) Few, A. V.; Smith, J. W. J . Chem. SOC.1949,753.
(3) Foniati, A. F.; Glaegow, A. R.,Jr.; Williangham, C.B.; m i n i , F. D. J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 1946,36,129. (4) White, J. D.; Row, F. W., Jr. J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 1932,9,711. (5) Robert, C. W. CRC Hand Book of Chemistry and Physics, 59th ed.; CRC Prees Inc.: Boca Raton, FL. (6) Singh, P. P.; Sharma, S.P. J. Chem. Eng. Data 1986,30,477. (7) Wuniak, J.;Tamir, A. Mixing and Excess ThermodynamicProperties; Eleevier Scientific Publishing Co.: New York, 1978. (8) Singh,P. P.; Nigam, R.K.; Sharma, S.P. Thermochim. Acta 1983, 63, 237. Received for review April 29, 1993. Accepted October 25, 1993.. Abstract published in Aduance ACS Abstracts, December 1, 1993.